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Exercise, Immunity and the COVID-19 Pandemic

Richard J. Simpson, Ph.D., FACSM | Mar 30, 2020

immune system exercise covid19The human immune system is a highly intricate network of cells and molecules designed to keep the host free from infection and disease. Exercise is known to have a profound impact on the normal functioning of the immune system. Having higher age and sex-adjusted scores for cardiorespiratory fitness and performing regular exercise of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise that fall within ACSM guidelines has been shown to improve immune responses to vaccination, lower chronic low-grade inflammation, and improve various immune markers in several disease states including cancer, HIV, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cognitive impairment and obesity. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has raised a lot of questions regarding how exercise can protect us from infection by boosting immunity. This is becoming more pertinent as many of us have restricted access to the gyms and parks where we would normally undertake exercise and physical activity regimens. Compounding this problem are the known negative effects of social isolation and confinement on immunity. Glucocorticoids such as cortisol are elevated during periods of isolation and confinement and can inhibit many critical functions of our immune system. When we are stressed, the ability of our T-cells to multiply in response to infectious agents is markedly reduced, as is the ability of certain effector lymphocytes (e.g., NK-cells and CD8+ T-cells) to recognize and kill cells in our body that have become cancerous or have been infected with viruses. It is also vitally important that our immune cells maintain their ability to redeploy so that they may ‘patrol’ vulnerable areas in or body (e.g., the upper respiratory tract and the lungs) to prevent viruses and other pathogens from gaining a foothold. This process is also important to minimize the impact of the virus and to expedite viral resolution should we become infected.


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China does not want to see a trade war between the US and China. That would not make our trade fairer and cause loss for the both sides.
分析师们认为,这次新机发布将有助于苹果克服过去两年的增长问题。在像美国和欧洲这样的市场上,智能手机的拥有量已趋近饱和,很多客户不再频繁更换现有手机,推动更快收入增长的最佳途径就是提高单位价格,而不是单纯地依靠出货量。
选择出国继续学习的学生比例也出现小幅下降,由去年的4.8%下降至3.4%。
2015年,欧盟仅提起了12起反倾销案,较前一年减少了2起。
安娜来自一个黑帮家庭,她的发型有时搭配大墨镜或阿玛尼大翻领军装式风衣,既能点明她的社会阶层,又有严肃的威慑力。
For the first time, it’s a blend of two colors: Rose Quartz (a kind of mineral pink) and Serenity (a light blue). On the company’s website, the colors flow seamlessly into each other so that it’s impossible to tell where one begins and the other ends.
After exhausting all his options, the practical kid decided to tend to his academic responsibilities, not knowing how long it would take before someone finds him.
上榜的密码中有几大主题,包括人名和兴趣爱好。
28 June
Are you often irritable?
另一方面,10月份工业生产者出厂价格(PPI)连续第3个月同比下降5.9%。
7.Thought-Controlled Bionic Legs
在这欢乐的时节给你我最真的祝福和亲切的思念,愿你今年的新年比往年更璀璨。
Developer: Remedy Entertainment, Microsoft Studios
“有些人说自己去吃午饭了,然后一去不回。”
port部分+ion→一部分→部分,一般
Edgar Wright’s Baby Driver is one of the most entertaining thrill rides of this year, this decade. This century.
vi. 谈话,讲述
在观影从始至终,我都在问自己一个问题:这部电影到底在讲什么……这部电影的主题仿佛一锅杂烩,并不明晰。我希望制片人也在问同样的问题。
与此同时,预计出口将继续下降,原因是全球需求疲软而价格上涨,以及中国实际上决定让人民币汇率再度盯住正在走强的美元。
这样令人反胃的发现在当地并非第一次。从去年起,位于中越边境的广西警方加强了对走私活动的监察打击力度,并成功突袭七家非法食品加工厂。
? Heavy snow has fallen in West Virginia, with up to 17 inches in Webster Springs. The National Weather Service has warned that more is on the way.
上赛季的封王对勇士队球迷来说是一种缓解,毕竟他们前一年经历了总决赛史上最严重的崩盘。尽管如此,但整个系列赛的感觉还是“是的,这是应该发生的。”。几乎没有什么戏剧性的事情,也没有什么争论,最后,大家都预料到会发生什么。不会引起太多谈话或兴趣,它就是这样的。
The film version of the popular television series "Legend of Sword and Fairy", also known as Chinese Paladin starts shooting in Zhejiang Province today.


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In this regard, it is vitally important that we try to maintain our activity levels within recommended guidelines. Not only can exercise have a positive direct effect on the cells and molecules of the immune system, but it is also known to counter the negative effects of isolation and confinement stress on various aspects of immunity. Although no scientific data currently exists regarding the effects of exercise on coronaviruses, there is evidence that exercise can protect the host from many other viral infections including influenza, rhinovirus (another cause of the common cold) and herpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr (EBV), varicella-zoster (VZV) and herpes-simplex-virus-1 (HSV-1). Work from Jeff Woods’ lab at the University of Illinois showed that moderate-intensity exercise training during an active influenza infection protected mice from death. It also promoted a favorable immune cell composition and cytokine shift in the lungs that was associated with prolonged survival. A major focus of our research is to understand how exercise can mitigate the negative effects of stress to maintain immune function, particularly during prolonged periods of isolation and confinement such as space travel. We showed recently that astronauts who had higher pre-flight cardiorespiratory fitness and skeletal muscle endurance before a six-month mission to the International Space Station were less likely to reactivate EBV and VZV during the mission. Copies of EBV viral DNA were also lower in the fitter astronauts, indicating that their ability to infect others is also reduced. Moreover, those astronauts who had lower pre-flight fitness levels and returned to Earth with the greatest levels of cardiorespiratory deconditioning were more likely to have reactivated a virus during the mission. Viral reactivation is a global indicator that our immune system has been weakened, which, in this context, we believe to be largely due to the stressors associated with isolation and confinement. This research indicates that exercise, in addition to the aforementioned direct effects it can have on cells and molecules of the immune system, may be an effective stress-induced countermeasure to help maintain immune function and lower infection risk.

Currently, the greatest risk of COVID-19 infection is exposure. It is paramount that we find creative ways to exercise while maintaining social distancing and proper hygienic countermeasures. While exercise may not prevent us from becoming infected if exposed, it is likely that keeping active will boost our immune system to help minimize the deleterious effects of the virus, ameliorate our symptoms, expedite our recovery times and lower the likelihood that we can infect others with whom we come into contact. This is merely my intuition, but I do expect a large body of exercise immunology research to follow after this pandemic so that we can provide more specific exercise recommendations as they pertain to infection risk and control in both healthy and clinical populations.

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Rickie SimpsonRichard J. Simpson, Ph.D., FACSM, is an associate professor in the Departments of Nutritional Sciences, Pediatrics and Immunobiology at the University of Arizona. His research interests are concerned with the effects of aging, stress and exercise on the immune system. Major focus areas include understanding: 1) how exercise and other behavioral interventions can offset age-related decrements in the normal functioning of the immune system (immunosenescence); 2) how adrenergic receptor signaling can be used to improve cellular products for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and immunotherapy; 3) the interplay between the immune and neuroendocrine system during high level human performance and extreme isolation (i.e., space travel); and 4) how persistent virus infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) can alter the phenotype and function of T-cells and NK-cells to protect the host from certain hematological malignancies. Dr. Simpson is an ACSM Fellow and president-elect of the International Society of Exercise Immunology (ISEI). His research is supported by multiple NASA grants, the NIH (National Cancer Institute) and industry.