The CIA's Appalling Human Experiments With Mind Control

CIA Director Allen Dulles
Distorted view of CIA Director Allen Dulles. (Credit: Weegee(Arthur Fellig)/International Center of Photography/Getty Images)

On April 10, 1953, Allen Dulles, the newly appointed director of the CIA, delivered a speech to a gathering of Princeton alumni. Though the event was mundane, global tensions were running high. The Korean War was coming to an end, and earlier that week, The New York Times had published a startling story asserting that American POWs returning from the country may have been “converted” by “Communist brain-washers.”

Some GI’s were confessing to war crimes, like carrying out germ warfare against the Communists–a charge the U.S. categorically denied. Others were reportedly so brainwashed that they had refused to return to the United States at all. As if that weren’t enough, the U.S. was weeks away from secretly sponsoring the overthrow of a democratically elected leader in Iran.

Dulles had just become the first civilian director of an agency growing more powerful by the day, and the speech provided an early glimpse into his priorities for the CIA. “In the past few years we have become accustomed to hearing much about the battle for men’s minds–the war of ideologies,” he told the attendees. “I wonder, however, whether we clearly perceive the magnitude of the problem, whether we realize how sinister the battle for men’s minds has become in Soviet hands,” he continued. “We might call it, in its new form, ‘brain warfare.’”

Dulles proceeded to describe the “Soviet brain perversion techniques” as effective, but “abhorrent” and “nefarious.” He gestured to the American POWs returning from Korea, shells of the men they once were, parroting the Communist propaganda they had heard cycled for weeks on end. He expressed fears and uncertainty–were they using chemical agents? Hypnosis? Something else entirely? “We in the West,” the CIA Director conceded, “are somewhat handicapped in brain warfare.” This sort of non-consensual experiment, even on one’s enemies, was antithetical to American values, Dulles insisted, as well as antithetical to what should be human values.

Allen W.Dulles, director of the Central Intelligence Agency
Allen W.Dulles, director of the Central Intelligence Agency at an executive session of the Joint Congressional Atomic Energy Committee. (Credit: Bettmann/Getty Images)

Fear of brainwashing and a new breed of “brain warfare” terrified and fascinated the American public throughout the 1950s, spurred both by the words of the CIA and the stories of “brainwashed” G.I.’s returning from China, Korea, and the Soviet Union. Newspaper headlines like “New Evils Seen in Brainwashing” and “Brainwashing vs. Western Psychiatry” offered sensational accounts of new mind-control techniques and technologies that no man could fully resist. The paranoia began to drift into American culture, with books like The Manchurian Candidate and The Naked Lunch playing on themes of unhinged scientists and vast political conspiracies.

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高位且不断上升的美国利率可能很快成为新兴市场危机的驱动因素:此类条件可能导致新兴市场借贷成本升高,还有资本外流以及金融部门冒险意愿下降。
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我们进行一个比较,佳士得和苏富比的这两次18世纪前绘画大师作品拍卖会共拍得2910万英镑,比五年前(2011年12月)类似拍卖会拍得的4420万英镑少了34%。
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n. 路线,(固定)线路,途径

How did a secret government mind control program inadvertently fuel the use of psychedelic drugs in the 1960s?

MK-Ultra

Three days after his speech decrying Soviet tactics, Dulles approved the beginning of MK-Ultra, a top-secret CIA program for “covert use of biological and chemical materials.” “American values” made for good rhetoric, but Dulles had far grander plans for the agency’s Cold War agenda.

MK-Ultra’s “mind control” experiments generally centered around behavior modification via electro-shock therapy, hypnosis, polygraphs, radiation, and a variety of drugs, toxins, and chemicals. These experiments relied on a range of test subjects: some who freely volunteered, some who volunteered under coercion, and some who had absolutely no idea they were involved in a sweeping defense research program. From mentally-impaired boys at a state school, to American soldiers, to “sexual psychopaths” at a state hospital, MK-Ultra’s programs often preyed on the most vulnerable members of society. The CIA considered prisoners especially good subjects, as they were willing to give consent in exchange for extra recreation time or commuted sentences.

Whitey Bulger, a former organized crime boss, wrote of his experience as an inmate test subject in MK-Ultra. “Eight convicts in a panic and paranoid state,” Bulger said of the 1957 tests at the Atlanta penitentiary where he was serving time. “Total loss of appetite. Hallucinating. The room would change shape. Hours of paranoia and feeling violent. We experienced horrible periods of living nightmares and even blood coming out of the walls. Guys turning to skeletons in front of me. I saw a camera change into the head of a dog. I felt like I was going insane.”

Allen W.Dulles, director of the Central Intelligence Agency
Gangster James "Whitey" Bulger's 1959 mugshot. (Credit: Donaldson Collection/Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

Bulger claimed he had been injected with LSD. Lysergic acid diethylamide, or acid, had become one of the CIA’s key interests for its “brain warfare” program, as the agency theorized it could be useful in interrogations. In the late 1940s, the CIA received reports that the Soviet Union had engaged in “intensive efforts to produce LSD,” and that the Soviets had attempted to purchase the world’s supply of the chemical. One CIA officer described the agency as “literally terrified” of the Soviets’ LSD program, largely because of the lack of knowledge about the drug in the United States. “[This] was the one material that we had ever been able to locate that really had potential fantastic possibilities if used wrongly,” the officer testified.

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For the first time a Bond girl’s storyline will be followed beyond her fleeting experience with 007, with the return of Pussy Galore.
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Harry Williams and Carl Pfeiffer
Doctors Harry Williams and Carl Pfeiffer conducting an LSD Experiment. (Credit: Bettmann/Getty Images)

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Operation Midnight Climax

Finally, only two schools join the open ranking for the first time this year. Antai College of Economics and Management at Shanghai Jiao Tong University comes straight in at 32 and Eller College of Management at the University of Arizona is ranked 68th out of 75.
Amy Kazmin
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Rank: 5
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A view of the old CIA building
A view of the old CIA building. (Credit: Ed Clark/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images)

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6.不是故事的结局不够好,而是我们对故事要求太多。
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9月份CPI录得1.6%的同比涨幅后,经济学家曾预测10月份的同比涨幅为1.5%。中国政府为今年全年设定的通胀目标为“3%左右”。
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萎靡不振的不光是那些挑选个股的基金。截止12月1日,对冲基金整体回报严重落后于市场。彭博收集的数据显示,对冲基金平均同比上涨了2%,其回报率也就勉强赶上无风险10年期美国国债的票面利率。2014年将有1000多只基金倒闭,是自2009年以来破产清算最多的一年。

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Fans of Twilight will finally get to see how the wedding, honeymoon, and birth scenes play out with the release of Breaking Dawn Part 1. But before you catch R
指数:100.0
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The average price for new residential housing rose 12.6 per cent in November year on year, according to a weighted average from Reuters based on data for 70 major cities published by the National Bureau of Statistics. That is up just 0.3 percentage points from October, whereas previous months had frequently seen jumps of 1 or 2 percentage points at a time.
found(v 建立;使有根据)作为词根表示:底部
8 April
Since Sunday, viewers everywhere have been in mourning, at least judging by the Twitterati.

George Hunter White
George Hunter White, supervisor for the New England area of the Federal Narcotics Bureau. (Credit: Evelyn Straus/NY Daily News via Getty Images)

Though the CIA piloted these safe houses as a stage for testing the effects of LSD, White’s interest shifted to another element of his observations: the sex. The San Francisco house became the center of what one writer called “the CIA carnal operations,” as officials began asking new questions about how to work with prostitutes, how they could be trained, and how they would handle state secrets. The agency also analyzed when in the course of a sexual encounter information could best be extracted from a source, eventually concluding that it was immediately after sex.

But perhaps unsurprisingly, much of White’s actions were driven by pure voyeurism: “I toiled wholeheartedly in the vineyards because it was fun, fun, fun,” White later said. “Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal, rape, and pillage with the sanction and blessing of the All-Highest?"

The Demise of MK-Ultra

The CIA’s experiments with LSD persisted until 1963 before coming to a fairly anticlimactic end. In the spring of 1963, John Vance, a member of the CIA Inspector General’s staff, learned about the project’s “surreptitious administration to unwitting nonvoluntary human subjects.” Though the MK-Ultra directors tried to convince the CIA’s independent audit board that the research should continue, the Inspector General insisted the agency follow new research ethics guidelines and bring all the programs on non-consenting volunteers to an end.

President Gerald Ford meeting with the family of Dr. Frank Olson in 1975.
President Gerald Ford meeting with the family of Dr. Frank Olson in 1975. (Credit: Bettmann/Getty Images)

4. 贵金属:“都在玩消失!经济周期下行”
Wearing a black leotard and curled hairpiece, beauty queen Bobbi Boyden shakes her hips and blows kisses to the audience as part of her routine.
虽然与其他四部电视剧相比,《大唐荣耀》的评分并不算低,但是仍然有许多观众给出了差评。
The 60-episode TV drama was adapted from a novel Legend of Princess Pearl published in 2007. It focuses on the protagonist Shen Zhenzhu’s romance with her husband and their efforts to protect the country.
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11月17日
大银行已经或多或少地放弃了用高薪留住人才的尝试。自金融危机以来,有一件事很清楚:如果你想暴富,就得去硅谷。露丝波拉特(Ruth Porat)在2015年树立了一个标杆,她放弃了摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)首席财务官约1300万美元的年薪,跳槽谷歌(如今的Alphabet)获得五倍于此的薪酬。
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追踪制造业、服务业和建筑业商务活动的官方指标显示,10月份这几个驱动中国经济的关键行业的增长有所放缓。
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Tumor Biology, a journal published by Springer Nature, announced last week that it had retracted the papers after an investigation showed the peer review process had been compromised.
The Turkish president said Angela Merkel, the German chancellor, was “no different from the Netherlands” and urged émigré Turks not to vote for “the government and the racists” in upcoming European elections. Ms Merkel faces a tough re-election bid in September.

1.Actuary
我经常心情不好
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Regarding Syria, Putin said the Russian military operation will continue until a political process starts. And he said the Syrian people must determine who rules the country. He also said he does not know whether Russia needs a permanent military base in Syria.
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Stryker
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Mr Na said that although South Korea had signed a trade agreement with China, there were plenty of other ways in which Beijing could punish Seoul.