During your first prenatal visit, your health care provider may talk to you about the following ways to help have a healthy pregnancy:1
Begin or continue to get at least 400 micrograms of folic acid by taking vitamin supplements every day to reduce your child's risk of neural tube defects. In the United States, enriched grain products such as bread, cereal, pasta, and other grain-based foods are fortified with folic acid. A related form, called folate, occurs naturally in leafy, green vegetables and orange juice, but folate is not absorbed as well as folic acid.2 Also, it can be difficult to get all the folic acid you need from food alone.3 Most prenatal vitamins contain 400 micrograms of folic acid.4 If you have had a child with an NTD before, taking a larger daily dose of folic acid (4 mg) before and during early pregnancy can reduce the risk for recurrence in a subsequent pregnancy.
FASDs are a variety of effects on the fetus that result from the mother drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The effects range from mild to severe, and they include 海南家居建材市场：5年内小型经营实现归行入市; behavior problems; abnormal facial features; and disorders of the heart, kidneys, bones, and hearing. FASDs last a lifetime although early intervention services can help improve a child's development. FASDs are completely preventable: If a woman does not drink alcohol while she is pregnant, her child will not have an FASD.7 Currently, research shows that there is no safe amount of alcohol to drink while pregnant. According to one recent study supported by the NIH, infants can suffer long-term developmental problems even with low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure.8
Other research shows that smoking tobacco, smoking marijuana, exposure to second-hand smoke, and taking drugs during pregnancy can also harm the fetus and affect infant health. One study showed that smoking tobacco or marijuana and using illegal drugs doubled or even tripled the risk of stillbirth, fetal death after 20 weeks of pregnancy.9 Likewise, drinking alcohol, smoking tobacco, and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy increases the risk of SIDS, the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than 1 year old.10 Research also shows that smoking marijuana during pregnancy can interfere with normal brain development in the fetus, possibly causing long-term problems.11 For more information, visit https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/substance-use-in-women/
Your health care provider can be a source of help if you find it hard to quit smoking or drinking on your own. You can also visit http://smokefree.gov/ for plans and information about quitting smoking. The Rethinking Drinking website provides resources and information related to quitting alcohol use. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) offers a services locator through its website at 文化和旅游部通报“酒店卫生乱象”进展：将赴现场检查. SAMHSA also has a confidential hotline through which people can find assistance: 1-800-662-HELP (4357).
According to the CDC, most women take at least one medication during pregnancy.12 The majority of medications have not been specifically studied for use in pregnancy. Talk to your health care provider about over-the-counter and prescription medications and herbal and vitamin supplements. Certain medications to treat acne and epilepsy and some dietary or herbal supplements can harm the fetus during pregnancy.
Taking prescription pain medications, specifically opioids, during pregnancy can pose serious risks to the fetus. Taking these medications during pregnancy doubles or even triples the risk for stillbirth.9 If taken regularly during pregnancy, the baby may go through withdrawal after birth, a situation called neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Babies with NAS face a variety of symptoms and problems, some of them severe.13 The best way to protect your baby from these problems is to stop taking these medications during pregnancy.
During pregnancy, exposure to radiation, pesticides, some metals, and certain chemicals can cause birth defects, premature birth, and miscarriage.14 If you're not sure if something might be harmful to you or your fetus, avoid contact with it until you check with your health care provider.
If you work in a job on a farm, a dry cleaner, a factory, a nail or hair salon, you might be around or come into contact with potentially harmful substances. Talk to your health care provider and your employer about how you can protect yourself before and during pregnancy. You may need extra protection at work or a change in your job duties to stay safe.14
Xinhua reported in 2015 that the MOE and five other central government departments were putting together a task force to ensure that football thrives in the country's schools.
Lead: Lead is a metal that may be present in house paint, dust, and garden soil. Any home built before 1978 may have lead paint. Exposure can occur when removing paint in old buildings (or if the paint is peeling) and working in some jobs (for example, manufacturing automotive batteries). Lead is also present in some well water and in water that travels through lead pipes. High levels of lead during pregnancy can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, and premature delivery, as well as learning and behavior problems for the child.15 Women who had exposure to lead in the past should have1 their blood levels checked before and during pregnancy.15 Call the National Lead Information Center for information about how to prevent exposure to lead at: 800-424-LEAD.
Radiation: Radiation is energy that travels through space. It can be in the form of X-rays, radio waves, heat, or light, or it can come from "radioactive" materials like dust, metals, or liquids that give off energy called radioactivity. Low exposures to radiation from natural sources (such as from the sun) or from microwave ovens or routine medical X-rays are generally not harmful. Because the fetus is inside the mother, it is partially protected from radiation's effects.14,16 Pregnant women or women who might be pregnant should make sure their dentists and doctors are aware of this so appropriate precautions can be taken with medical scans (X-rays or CT scans) or treatments that involve radiation.14 Pregnant women who may be exposed to radiation in the workplace should speak with their employer and health care provider to make sure the environment is safe during their pregnancy. Nuclear or radiation accidents, while rare, can cause high radiation exposures that are extremely dangerous, especially to the developing fetus.
Solvents: Solvents are chemicals that dissolve other substances. Solvents include alcohols, degreasers, and paint thinners. Some solvents give off fumes or can be absorbed through the skin and can cause severe health problems. During pregnancy, being in contact with solvents, especially if you work with them, can be harmful. Solvents may lead to miscarriage, slow the growth of the fetus, or cause preterm birth and birth defects.14 Pregnant women who may be exposed to solvents in the workplace should speak with their employer and health care provider to make sure the environment is safe during their pregnancy.17 Whenever you use solvents, be sure to do so in a well-ventilated area, wear safety clothes (such as gloves and a face mask), and avoid eating and drinking in the work area.14
Many chemicals are commonly found in the blood and body fluids of pregnant women and their infants. However, much remains unknown about the effects of fetal exposure to chemicals.18 It's best to be cautious about chemical exposure when you are planning to get pregnant or if you are pregnant. Talk to your health care provider if you live or work in or near a toxic environment.17
Choose a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products to help ensure the developing fetus gets all the nutrients it needs. Make sure you also drink plenty of water. An online tool called the Daily Checklist for Moms can help you plan your meals so that you get the right foods in the right amounts according to your personal characteristics and your stage of pregnancy.
Read 二线楼市调查：开盘场面堪比演唱会 2小时就卖光 (PDF – 72.1 KB) from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to learn more about how much you should eat during pregnancy, the nutrients you need, and how much caffeine is safe to drink.
Avoid certain foods such as raw fish, undercooked meat, deli meat, and unpasteurized cheeses (for example, certain types of feta, bleu cheese, and Mexican-style soft cheeses).19 Always check the label to make sure the cheese is pasteurized.
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‘I Could Not Forget What Happened to Me That Night With Him’
Reese Witherspoon dreamt of being a non-traditionalist, reportedly wanting to transform the best actress statue she won for Walk the Line into a door knocker or a necklace (“statement” jewellery would not have cut the mustard). Neither option being practical, however, he now stands in her living room.
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), pregnant women can eat up to 12 ounces a week of fish and shellfish that have low levels of methylmercury (salmon, canned light tuna, and shrimp). Albacore ("white") tuna has more methylmercury than canned light tuna; pregnant women should consume 6 ounces or less in a week. Avoid fish with high levels of methylmercury (swordfish, king mackerel, and shark). For more information on methylmercury and pregnancy, see the FDA Food Safety for Moms-to-Be.19
Some studies suggest that too much caffeine can increase the risk of miscarriage. Talk to your health care provider about the amount of caffeine you get from coffee, tea, or soda. Your health care provider might suggest a limit of 200 milligrams (the amount in about one 12-ounce cup of coffee) per day. Keep in mind, though, that some of the foods you eat, including chocolate, also contain caffeine and contribute to the total amount you consume each day.20
Most women can continue regular levels of physical activity throughout pregnancy. Regular physical activity can help you feel better, sleep better, and prepare your body for birth. After your child is born, it can help get you back to your pre-pregnancy shape more quickly.21 Talk to your health care provider about the amount and type of physical activity that is right for you.
That's particularly striking in Brazil, with its highly mixed population that has more blacks than any country with the exception of Nigeria. More than half of Brazil's population self-identified themselves as black or of mixed-race in the 2010 census.
Developer:Dontnod Entertainment, Square Enix
The first drone can be traced back to 1916 when British inventor Archibald Low designed and flew the first unmanned radio-controlled vehicle. The drone was made to counterattack German Zeppelin airships, and it also carried out ground attacks during World War I. It was made with wood and tin, its wings taken from the lower wing of another biplane. Overall, the drone was somewhat unsuccessful because the noise from its engine interfered with its radio. The Sopwith Aircraft Company also tried making a drone in 1916. They placed the radio equipment at the tail so that the engine would not interfere with its signal, but their drone never flew as it was damaged in an accident on the ground. Low would try flying his drone again in 1917 when he flew it in front of some senior military officers. It was launched from the back of a lorry and flew for some time before crashing due to engine failure, almost killing the military officers present.
The amount of weight you should gain during pregnancy depends on your pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI), which is your weight in kilograms divided by the square of your height in meters (kg/m2). The following guidelines are for women who are pregnant with one fetus. The recommendations are different if you are pregnant with more than one fetus (such as twins).22,23
- Maddie has now appeared in three of Sia's videos - Chandelier, Elastic Heart and Big Girls Cry.
- While many young children try and avoid school work at all costs, the star professes to be a keen student because she wants to avoid the trap of becoming 'a stupid dancer.'
In a recent NICHD study of more than 8,000 pregnant women, 73% gained more than the recommended amount of weight. The study found that excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases the risk for gestational high blood pressure, cesarean section, and large-for-gestational-age infants.24
Iron-deficiency anemia—when the body doesn't have enough iron—is common during pregnancy and is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight. Your health care provider may screen you for iron-deficiency anemia and, if you have it, may recommend iron supplements.25 Your health care provider may also recommend a vitamin B12 supplement if you are a vegan.26,27 (Vegetarians normally get enough vitamin B12 by eating eggs and dairy products.)
Your gums are more likely to become inflamed or infected because of hormonal changes and increased blood flow during pregnancy.28 Make sure you tell your dentist if you think you could be pregnant, but keeping up your regularly scheduled checkups is important. Some women may fear getting dental work during pregnancy, but a 2006 study and 2011 follow-up study showed no increase in preterm births or other adverse outcomes for pregnant women who received dental care.29
Vaccinations can protect against many infections that can affect the mother's health, the pregnancy, the fetus, and even her newborn child. Some vaccines need to be given before pregnancy, so it's a good idea to review your vaccination history with your health care provider as part of your pre-pregnancy care. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides 12月上旬沙钢建材调价预警：成本支撑 价格难降 to help ensure a healthy pregnancy.
- March of Dimes. (2011). Your first prenatal care checkup. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from 4. 欧佩克的下一步行动。说到去年的油价暴跌，石油输出国组织（OPEC）起了很大作用（或者说要承担很大责任）。虽然许多评论人士都说欧佩克保持原油产量不变无关紧要，然而，仅油价在该组织11月份会议过后出现暴跌这一事实便充分证明了该组织对油价走势的影响力。目前，欧佩克——更确切地说是沙特——仍在坚持己见，毫无下调生产配额的迹象。2015年这一情况是否会得以延续，仍有待观察。
- NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. (2016). Dietary supplement fact sheet: Folate. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from 9月多地严打房地产市场乱象 未来调控或继续加码
- KidsHealth from Nemours. (Reviewed October 2014). Folic acid and pregnancy. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from That's the headline flashing red warnings. After reviewing 20 cycles tracked by 20 other experts, GoldSeek.com concluded: 'There are many cycles that suggest a stock-market correction or crash is near ... Preparation is important. You still have a little time remaining before the 'window' closes!'
- Womenshealth.gov. (2012). ePublications: Prenatal care fact sheet. Retrieved June 27,2017, from 北京将启动百项环保技改 家具建材企业首面治理
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Preconception health and health care: Planning for pregnancy. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from 北京通州限购第一人房买一半遇限购 起诉败诉
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation. Committee Opinion No. 637. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 126, 234–238. Retrieved November 9, 2016, from 南极洲
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs): Facts about FASDs. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from 王冬雷调查步步紧逼 吴长江违规指控逐步坐实
- Eckstrand, K. L., Ding, Z., Dodge, N. C., Cowan, R. L., Jacobson, J. L., Jacobson, S.W., et al. (2012). Persistent dose-dependent changes in brain structure in young adults with low-to-moderate alcohol exposure in utero. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 36(11), 1892–1902. PMID: 22594302
- NICHD.(2013). Tobacco, drug use in pregnancy can double risk of stillbirth. Retrieved November 9, 2016, from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/news/releases/Pages/
- NICHD.(2016). Ways to reduce the risk of SIDS and other sleep-related causes of infant death. Retrieved June 2, 2016, from 2016年橱柜行业三大变化与走势
- NICHD.(2016). Prenatal exposure to marijuana may disrupt fetal brain development, mouse study suggests. Retrieved November 9, 2016, from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/news/releases/Pages/
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Treating for Two: Medicine and Pregnancy. Retrieved May 16, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/meds/treatingfortwo/index.html
- Patrick, S. W., Dudley, J., Martin, P. R., Harrell, F. E., Warren, M. D., Hartmann, K. E., et al. (2015). Prescription opioid epidemic and infant outcomes. Pediatrics, 135(5), 842–850. Retrieved November 9, 2016, from This has happened elsewhere.
- March of Dimes (2016). Is it safe? Retrieved January 5, 2016, from v. 结带子，饰以花边
- Organization of Teratology Information Specialists. (2014). Lead and pregnancy. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from 北京建行租房平台石景山房源最多 (PDF 247 KB)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Cancer and long-term health effects of radiation exposure and contamination. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from 四类买房人催热楼市 专家预计6月或迎来爆发期
- University of California, San Francisco. (2010). Toxic matters: Protecting our families from toxic substances. Retrieved May 18, 2012, from https://prhe.ucsf.edu/
- Lanphear, B. P., Vorhees, C. V., & Bellinger, D. C. (2005). Protecting children from environmental toxins. PLOS Medicine, 2(3), e61.
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2014). Food safety for moms-to-be: While you're pregnant—methylmercury. Retrieved January 6, 2016, from 它基于针对各商学院及其2013年毕业的学员的调查。
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).(2010). Moderate caffeine consumption during pregnancy [ACOG Committee Opinion]. Retrieved May 21, 2012, from http://www.acog.org/Resources_And_Publications/Committee_Opinions/
- KidsHealth from Nemours. (2014). Exercising during pregnancy. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from 借助于Artnet等公布拍卖结果的数据库，如今购买艺术品的富豪非常清楚要想在早期绘画大师的作品上获利非常困难。
- Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (2009). Weight gain during pregnancy: Reexamining the guidelines. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Retrieved June 22, 2016, from http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/
Report%20Brief%20-%20Weight%20Gain%20During%20Pregnancy.pdf (PDF 717 KB)
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). (2013). Weight gain during pregnancy [ACOG Committee Opinion]. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from vt. 建议，推荐，劝告
- Johnson, J., Clifton, R. G., Roberts, J. M., Myatt. L., Hauth, J. C., Spong, C. Y., et al. (2013). Pregnancy outcomes with weight gain above or below the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 121(5), 969–975. PMID: 23635732
- Allen, L. H. (2000). Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(5), 1280s–1284s. Retrieved November 9, 2016, from 看房人减少 房主“顶点”卖房落空降20万没人买
- U.S.Department of Agriculture & U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2012, from "Look What You Made Me Do" is one for the history books, and pop scholars will likely debate for generations whether it was a brilliant P.R. coup or not. (PDF 2.89 MB)
- NICHD. (2010). Pregnancy and healthy weight. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from Lu also said high-quality hospitals will be built in Tongzhou and new towns in other suburban districts to attract downtown residents and ease traffic jams and other congestions in crowded downtown areas.
- March of Dimes. (2016). Gum and teeth change. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from 前7月全国住宅价格涨幅创近两年新高
- National Child and Maternal Oral Health Resource Center. (n.d.) Oral Health Care During Pregnancy: A Consensus Statement. Retrieved June 24, 2020, from 1.It wasn’t me! – Because some things just aren’t worth taking credit for。.