Learn R Programming

The Definitive Guide

Ranked 10th position, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China is the highest ranking Chinese company on the list.
在选择毕业后的职业道路的时候,雷文斯克罗夫特青睐Teach First的原因是,它兼具两个世界的好处。他能够快速当上教师,领取薪水,接受私人部门高管的指导,并与企业接触;相应地,他将承诺任教两年,完成教师资格培训认证。

Ms Xie estimates that around 40 per cent of the decline in November — about $35bn — is attributable to valuation effects related to the weakening of the euro and other currencies against the dollar in November, rather than outflows.


Things to Know Before Start Learning R

Why use R for statistical computing and graphics?

  1. R is open-source and free!
    R is free to download as it is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License. You can look at the source to see what’s happening under the hood. There’s more, most R packages are available under the same license so you can use them, even in commercial applications without having to call your lawyer.
  2. R is popular – and increasing in popularity
    IEEE publishes 部分一线城市租金上涨 业内:下半年全国住房租金相对平稳 each year. R was ranked 5th in 2016, up from 6th in 2015. It is a big deal for a domain-specific language like R to be more popular than a general-purpose language like C#. This not only shows the increasing interest in R as a programming language, but also of the fields like Data Science and Machine Learning where R is commonly used.
  3. R runs on all platforms
    You can find distributions of R for all popular platforms – Windows, Linux and Mac.R code that you write on one platform can easily be ported to another without any issues. Cross-platform interoperability is an important feature to have in today’s computing world – even Microsoft is making its coveted .NET platform available on all platforms after realizing the benefits of technology that runs on all systems.
  4. Learning R will increase your chances of getting a job
    According to the Data Science Salary Survey conducted by O’Reilly Media in 2014, data scientists are paid a median of $98,000 worldwide. The figure is higher in the US – around $144,000.Of course, knowing how to write R programs won’t get you a job straight away, a data scientist has to juggle a lot of tools to do their work. Even if you are applying for a software developer position, R programming experience can make you stand out from the crowd.
  5. R is being used by the biggest tech giants
    Adoption by tech giants is always a sign of a programming language’s potential. Today’s companies don’t make their decisions on a whim. Every major decision has to be backed by a concrete analysis of data.
    Companies Using R
    R is the right mix of simplicity and power, and companies all over the world use it to make calculated decisions. Here are a few ways industry stalwarts are using R and contributing to the R ecosystem.
Company Application/Contribution
Twitter Monitor user experience
Ford Analyze social media to support design decisions for their cars
New York Times Infographics, data journalism
Microsoft Released Microsoft R Open, an enhanced R distribution and Microsoft R server after acquiring Revolution Analytics in 2015
Human Rights Data Analysis Group Measure the impact of war
Google Created the R style guide for the R user community inside Google

Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg

Is R programming an easy language to learn?

我们从中精选了110部新剧和回归剧,又进一步缩减到下面的20部剧(内中没有包括HBO台的《真探》[True Detective],因为它被移到今年晚些时候,亦不包括《权力的游戏》[Game of Thrones]、《副总统》[Veep]和《硅谷》[Silicon Valley],其中《硅谷》将在四月播出第一集,具体日期未宣布)。从《绝命毒师》(Breaking Bad)的衍生剧到《小镇疑云》(Broadchurch)的回归,再到《火线警探》的最终季,冬天真是电视剧迷的好时光。

Although Chinese domestic suppliers have expanded their market share to 32.7% in 2016, the trend was reversed in 2017, as their share shrank to 26.8%, said Qu Daokui, president of China Robot Industry Alliance.

In fact, R is built on top of the language S programming that was originally intended as a programming language that would help the student learn to program while playing around with data.

没戏。这家受到热捧的美国电动车制造商曾经承诺在2018年生产40万辆新款Model 3s。该公司最新的产量目标暗示20万-30万辆。但是电池生产中出现的严重问题意味着一开始就慢了,而且特斯拉的记录不佳。对尚未证明自己离了华尔街不断输入的资金也能活的特斯拉而言,2018年可能会是不成功便成仁的一年。
12) I often find myself worrying about something 0 1 2 3 4
In the past six months alone, the Australian-born company fortified its senior executive ranks with high-profile hires from Amazon, PayPal, Google, and Twitter. It brokered a high-profile deal with Magento, the market leader, that promises to bring thousands of new customers to it. And it broke the lease on its new San Francisco office because it is hiring so quickly that it now needs triple the space it originally anticipated.

The artefact which has a flat base was found inside an ancient tomb in the Xuyi County in western Jiangsu in 2009. It has been kept at the Nanjing Museum the capital of Jiangsu Province.

Applications of R Programming in Real World

  1. Data Science
    Harvard Business Review named data scientist the “sexiest job of the 21st century”. Glassdoor named it the “best job of the year” for 2016. With the advent of IoT devices creating terabytes and terabytes of data that can be used to make better decisions, data science is a field that has no other way to go but up. Simply explained, a data scientist is a statistician with an extra asset: computer programming skills. Programming languages like R give a data scientist superpowers that allow them to collect data in realtime, perform statistical and predictive analysis, create visualizations and communicate actionable results to stakeholders.Most courses on data science include R in their curriculum because it is the data scientist’s favorite tool.
  2. Statistical computing
    R is the most popular programming language among statisticians. In fact, it was initially built by statisticians for statisticians. It has a rich package repository with more than 9100 packages with every statistical function you can imagine. R’s expressive syntax allows researchers – even those from non computer science backgrounds to quickly import, clean and analyze data from various data sources.
    R also has charting capabilities, which means you can plot your data and create interesting visualizations from any dataset.
  3. Machine Learning
    R has found a lot of use in predictive analytics and machine learning. It has various packages for common ML tasks like linear and non-linear regression, decision trees, linear and non-linear classification and many more. Everyone from machine learning enthusiasts to researchers use R to implement machine learning algorithms in fields like finance, genetics research, retail, marketing and health care.

Alternatives to R programming

In its decision to not boost its monetary stimulus efforts, the Bank of Japan noted industrial production was one area where the economy was just puttering along. Certainly, there were other parts of the economy, such as the labour market, that were doing much better.

Python – Popular general-purpose language

Python is a very powerful high-level, object-oriented programming language with an easy-to-use and simple syntax.

A new MIT white paper, ominously entitled "Are You Prepared for the Supply Chain Talent Crisis?," bears that out. Supply chain managers need sophisticated tech skills, sure, but they also have to be adept at "high-order diplomacy," expert at general business strategy and problem solving, and able to "thrive in ambiguity," the study says.
GDP reached 74.4 trillion yuan, representing 6.7-percent growth.

《为奴十二年》导演史蒂夫?麦奎因(Steve McQueen)在登台领奖时说:我有点吓到了。然后他微微耸肩,引用片中福音歌曲的歌词,说了句“翻涌吧,约旦河,翻涌吧”("Roll, Jordan, roll")。

Managers are expected to manage the people below them on the corporate hierarchy, but the best managers also have ways of managing their superiors and coworkers on behalf of their team. Many times this means effective communication, managing expectations, and requesting help in a timely manner。
5. 地缘政治事件。不久之前,石油供应稍有差池,油价就会飙升。比如说2014年初,利比亚内乱造成该国石油出口中断,油价应声上涨。在伊拉克, 极端组织ISIS领了部分地区,石油供应中断的顾虑也造成油价急剧攀升。然而,自此之后,地缘政治事件对油价的影响大为减弱。2014年最后几周,利比亚再现战事。但市场仅在油价短暂上扬后便把这一问题抛诸脑后。不过,历史一再证明,地缘政治危机是对油价影响最大的短期因素之一。(财富中文网)
Have a love filled New Year!
vigor(n 精力;活力)

SAS (Statistical Analysis System)

SAS is a powerful software that has been the first choice of private enterprise for their analytics needs for a long time. Its GUI and comprehensive documentation, coupled with reliable technical support make it a very good tool for companies.

While R is the undisputed champion in academics and research, SAS is extremely popular in commercial analytics. But R and Python are gaining momentum in the enterprise space and companies are also trying to move towards open-source technologies. Time will tell if SAS will continue its dominance or R/Python will take over.

SPSS – Software package for statistical analysis

SPSS is another popular statistical tool. It is used most commonly in the social sciences and is considered the easiest to learn among enterprise statistical tools.


本届电影节最大新闻与电影无关,而是关于鞋子。据《银幕日报》报道,上周二(5月19日),数名女性在去参加托德?海因斯(Todd Haynes)执导的《卡罗尔》(Carol)首映红毯时,因穿着装饰有莱茵石的平底鞋,而被工作人员以不符合规定为由拒之门外。报道一出,社交媒体上义愤填膺。戛纳新闻办公室仓促应对,称该报道断章取义:“这么多年来,电影节的规则都没有变过(参加电影节放映会,男士着无尾半正式晚礼服,女士穿正式礼服。)而对女性高跟鞋的跟高没有特定的要求,同样对男性的亦无特殊要求。”因此,为了确保遵守规则,男女主持会被提醒记住这些规则。好了,这下清楚了,媒体放映场没有任何着装要求:着装邋遢的记者们可穿着人字拖与运动鞋随意踏上皇宫广场(Palais)的阶梯。


Run R Programming on Your Computer


Run R Programming in Mac

  1. Go to the official site of R programming
  2. 民航局要求国内运输航空公司暂停波音737-8飞机商业运行
  3. Select a mirror
  4. 杭州8月二手房成交环比下降34% 中介启动应急模式
  5. Download the latest pkg binary
  6. 36岁的阿德里亚娜·利马排在第四位,其收入为1050万美元,初为人母的罗西·亨廷顿-怀特利(950万美元)与25岁的卡莉·克劳斯(900万美元)分别位列榜单的第六位和第七位。

Run R Programming in Linux

On Ubuntu

Three of former US president Barack Obama's tweets were among Twitter's list of 10 most retweeted this year, while none of current US President Donald Trump's tweets made the list.

Format: After a one-week orientation, classes are held on alternating weekends on Fridays and Saturdays, with accommodations provided on Friday nights. Final term sessions are held on campus for two weeks with the remainder of the term completed online.
We learned about a warehouse that is like a mausoleum for endangered species.

  1. Open the sources.list file(usually located at /etc/apt/sources.list) in a text editor and add the following line at the end
    deb https:///bin/linux/ubuntu /


    deb https://cran.rstudio.com/bin/linux/ubuntu trusty/

    Sixty Vocab:
    巴尼汤普森(Barney Thompson)是法律记者

    sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://cran.rstudio.com/bin/linux/ubuntu trusty/" >> /etc/apt/sources.list'
  2. Authenticate the Ubuntu packages on CRAN
    The packages for Ubuntu that are stored on CRAN mirrors are all signed using a key with ID E084DAB9
    We download the public key from the Ubuntu keyserver using this ID and add it to our system using the command
    sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys E084DAB9
  3. Update the list of available packages
    Since we modified the sources.list, we need to tell APT to download the packages that are available from the CRAN servers by running the command.
    sudo apt-get update
  4. Download and install R
    Almost done. Just download and install the R package by running the command:
    sudo apt-get -y install r-base
  5. Open up the R console and issue the following command.
    $ R

    What Separates Wolves From Dogs

RedHat-based Distributions

v. 戴面具,掩饰,遮

su -c 'rpm -Uvh http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/i386/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm'

You can find the URL for the correct rpm file for your system here.


sudo yum update
sudo yum install R


For the government, the job is to create a good environment and the necessary conditions for our people to use their own wisdom and hard work to generate golden opportunities for themselves, rather than just relying on the government to hand them a job.

Just run the commands:

sudo yum update
sudo yum install R

Run R Programming in Windows

  1. Go to the official site of R programming
  2. 地方楼市畸形分化 行政干预可能性不大
  3. Select a mirror
  4. Click “Download R for Windows”
  5. 住建部征求意见:住宅拟以套内使用面积交易
  6. 其中一个球迷站在女孩对面的球迷俯下身来想和女孩索吻,此时女孩正与她的朋友用法语交谈时,男子假装很囧地和旁边一个朋友来了一个拥抱。

Should I install the 32-bit version or the 64-bit version?

vt. 凌辱,激怒

This frame lets you hang your hammock anywhere. You can use it on the water. Snow. On the road.
One of the more unique games announced at Gamescom was Silent Hills, the latest sequel in Konami’s bestselling horror franchise (which has also spawned two films). The world of gaming and movies combine in this new game, which is being developed by Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain creator Hideo Kojima and Pacific Rim director Guillermo del Toro. The game will star The Walking Dead’s Norman Reedus.

Installing RStudio


The installation process is straight forward. Download the RStudio (Windows, Linux and Mac OS X), run the file and follow the instructions to install it.

Note: R should be installed on your system before you can run RStudio.


Choose R version in Rstudio

“An employee sent his boss a text message to say he was leaving.”

Chicago-based rival AT Kearney is also preparing for a change at the top, with a vote to replace Johan Aurik, who has already served the maximum two terms as managing partner, due to take place in the first quarter of 2018. His replacement will be expected to focus on how to pull AT Kearney out of the ranks of mid-sized players.


Go to File > New File > R Script as shown in the screenshot below to create a new R script.

New file in RStudio

It even featured in the March 19, 1870, issue of Scientific American magazine. Made by Thomas Luders from Olney, Illinois, and called a "pedespeed," the wheels then were much smaller, measuring around 36 centimeters (15 in) in diameter. Luders also said the skates could be used by anybody, irrespective of their physique. He himself was a large, heavy man, and he claimed he could use them for two straight hours without getting tired. Another version of wheel skates, appearing in 1923, had its tires on the inside of the foot rather than outside. (Other than the size of the wheels, the main improvement made by Chariot Skates is the small tire at the back of the bigger tire for increased stability.)
9. Investors brains are so distracted, in denial, they won't get out in time.


RStudio GUI


Your First R Program

adj. 传统的

While Kobe's grown into his 6'6'' frame nicely, he was still a pretty decent-sized guy back in high school. Just imagine how hard trying to stop a 17-year-old Kobe Bryant was back in 1996. I'm sure it was nearly impossible.
In Pakistani Fray, Maryam Sharif Is on the Edge of Power, or Prison

Copy the following code into the RStudio window, press Ctrl+A(Windows) or Cmd+A(Mac) to select all three lines and press Ctrl+Enter(Windows) or Cmd+Enter(Mac)

n <- floor(rnorm(10000, 500, 100))
t <- table(n)

You don't know how to fix the holes in our ozone layer. You don't know how to bring salmon back up a dead stream. You don't know how to bring back an animal now extinct.And you can't bring back forests that once grew where there is now desert. If you don't know how to fix it, please stop breaking it! 您不知道怎么去修补大气的臭氧空洞,您也不知道怎么去从死亡的河流中拯救鱼类,您更不知道如何把灭绝的动物复苏,您也不能把沙漠中从前完整的森林带回来。如果您不知道如何拯救,那么请您停止破坏吧!

Creating a bar graph using r


Getting a list of random numbers in normal distribution

n <- floor(rnorm(10000, 500, 100))




R floor function

Counting occurrences of each value

Wealthy Chinese are showing growing interest in islands in recent years.

Table function in R programming

Then why do you go out and do the things you tell us not to do? 你们大人为什么去做与你们教导孩子相反的事情呢?
The lending conditions were not limited to nude pictures. Also leaked were a number of screenshots of supposed dialogues between the borrowers and lenders, with one lender demanding that the female students deliver a video of herself masturbating.

Plotting the frequencies on a bar graph

5. 弗莱德·赫什三人组(Fred Hersch Trio),《漂浮》(Floating), Palmetto。赫什目前的钢琴三人组由约翰·艾伯特(John Hébert)担任贝斯,埃里克·麦克菲森(Eric McPherson)担任鼓手,他们有着精确的优雅。这张专辑的结构如同一场夜间俱乐部演出,包括若干重新编配的标准曲,以及几首强劲而充满情感的原创曲,有着强大的表现力。


barplot(table(floor(rnorm(10000, 500, 100))), xlab="Numbers", ylab="Frequencies")

1. Apple
The value of goods that crossed international borders last year fell 13.8 per cent in dollar terms — the first contraction since 2009 — according to the Netherlands Bureau of Economic Policy Analysis’s World Trade Monitor. Much of the slump was due to a slowdown in China and other emerging economies.

Getting Started With R console

In 2013, the yen fell 21% against the U.S. dollar, helping it to attract 10 million overseas tourists--including, despite Sino-Japanese border disputes in the East China Sea, many wealthy travelers from China.
5. Repeats & highlights are as good as the main match, so am gonna watch them.
n. 贡献,捐款(赠)

Fast & Furious 6 helped place two other actors high on our list: Vin Diesel and the late Paul Walker. Diesel lands in fourth place with $887 million. Fast & Furious 6 earned $789 million at the box office worldwide. The third movie in his Riddick franchise hit theaters just a few months after. It only pulled in $98 million, but that was enough to put Diesel ahead of his co-star Walker on our list.

单词vigilance 联想记忆:

Stripping out price, volumes of Chinese imports in October fell a more modest 2.6 per cent from a year earlier, according to estimates from Oxford Economics.

> n <- c(2, 3, 5, 10, 14)
> mean(n)
[1] 6.8

Plante Moran

Dachis says: Fiat suffered through a slow global sales year in 2012. Sluggish sales were reflected in sluggish social activity as the company went in reverse on positive discussion around the web.
The Glory of Tang Dynasty

sc=scene(n 风景),roll(n 卷)-卷着风景的画卷

> source("example.R ")
To exit the command prompt we can call the q() function (as in quit).
> q()

Different ways to run R scripts

7. Cannes' 'year of women' didn't go so well

Method 1: Using R CMD BATCH command

“我们会根据天气谨慎考虑投送的时间和地点,但这些都不会公开,”脱北者Park Sang-Hak说道,他曾经领导过一系列的气球投送运动。

R CMD BATCH /home/demo/learnR/Rprogramming.R

The output of this command will be stored in a file called Rprogramming.Rout

Method 2: Using Rscript

Use the following command

Rscript /home/demo/learnR/Rprogramming.R

The difference between R CMD and Rscript is that Rscript prints the output to STDOUT instead of a file.

If you want to turn your R program into an executable, you can specify that you want the file to run using Rscript by adding the following line at the beginning of your R script.

#!/usr/bin/env Rscript
For example, If your R program looks like
#!/usr/bin/env Rscript
n <- c(2, 3, 5, 10, 14)

You can directly execute it from the terminal as ./Rprogramming.R

Learn to Code in R programming

Will China's stock market climb back to the 6,000-point mark it reached two years ago? The stock market was at its most bullish back then, but if you ask the same question now, some would cite a global economy still reeling from a recession.

Learn R from DataMentor

At DataMentor, we have created a ton of resources to help you get started with learning R. You can use our tutorials to get started with statistics using R. We cover how to

  • 震惊!广东防水涂料抽查全部不合格
  • Write R code
  • Understand the R syntax
  • 全国建材家居4月销售上涨三成
  • Learn advanced R concepts


Getting help in R

Use help() function

To get help on specific topics, we can use the help() function along with the topic we want to search. We can also use the ? operator for this.

> help(Syntax)
> ?Syntax

We also have the help.search() function to do a search engine type of search. We could use the ?? operator for this.

> help.search("histograms")
> ??"histograms"

McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University in Washington DC returns to the custom ranking in 15th place after dropping out last year because of a low survey response rate from clients. Only three schools enter the custom ranking for the first time, including London’s Cass Business School in 60th place.

Follow R communities and blogs

Finance is one of top school Edhec’s core strengths, both in terms of teaching and research. The school in 2001 established the Edhec-Risk Institute to produce and distribute research on areas such as asset and risk management.

Some of them are:

  • StackOverflow – Most Popular programming Q&A site on the web
  • R-bloggers – R news and tutorials contributed by (750) R bloggers
  • R-help – An active mailing list for R
  • Nabble – R specific mailing list and forum

WTF.2: They Believe You Can Fly