At the time I am writing this editorial, the world is overwhelmed by the pandmic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In a desperate attempt to contain the further spread of the virus and the diffusion of the COVID-19 disease it causes, governments across the world have taken measures that are unprecedented. Entire cities, regions and countries are sealed off, travel is banned, schools and universities are closed, shops are running out of stocks, and all economic, cultural and social activities have come to a stop. Never before in modern history has a health problem had such an overwhelming impact on society. Health (or rather the threat of ill health) has become the prevailing concern that takes precedence over all others issues, making health in all policies become a reality, albeit not in the way it was intended.
At first sight, this pandemic and the world’s response to it seems far removed from the health promotion perspectives we publish and that the International Union for Health Promotion and Education advocates for. When all hands are called on deck to prevent a contagious virus from spreading and to reinforce hospital staff facing a tsunami of patients suffering from a potentially deadly disease, there seems to be little need for specialists whose expertise lies at the other end of the continuum of care spectrum (Springer and Phillips, 2006). The real war heroes in the battle against the CoV-2 virus are virologists, epidemiologists, doctors and nurses, and even if many of the actions taken serve a preventative purpose, their focus is on the prevention of disease, not on promoting health.
Although no North American cities feature in the top 20, the EIU said the cost of living in New York had risen relative to other places in the United States. It shares 27th position as the most expensive US city with Los Angeles.
Not because I am happy to see the end of what was one of television’s smartest series, a pioneer of what is now generally accepted as the current golden age of small-screen serials.
Klay Thompson added 19 points and Andrew Bogut scored 13 for the Warriors, off to the best start by an NBA team since Dallas won its first 14 games in 2002-03. Golden State needs three wins to equal the league record of 15-0, held by the 1948-49 Washington Capitols and 1993-94 Houston Rockets.
Interviewers made their share of blunders, too.
Manal al-Sharif is best known for challenging laws and mores that keep women down in her native country.
Switzerland, Sweden and the UK again occupied the top three slots in the ranking. Fifteen of the top 25 economies in the GII come from Europe.
Civil War takes place after the events of Avengers: Age of Ultron, when the government decides that the Avengers should work under them and not on their own. Steve Rogers, aka Captain America, is against this idea whereas Tony Stark, aka Iron Man, is with the government. This leads to a conflict between Captain America and Iron Man.
最佳竞技真人秀：《美国之声》(The Voice , NBC)
The government's next snapshot of the job market, due Friday, will be distorted by Sandy, which devastated the Northeast in late October, leaving many jobless. Economists say Sandy could temporarily knock anywhere from 100,000 to 150,000 off of the government's jobs tally for November, resulting in job growth of under 100,000 or even much less.[qh]
China (mainland and Hong Kong) adds 25 to the list this year, more than any other country, for a total of 207. Three countries debut on the list this year: Mauritius, Slovakia, and Togo.
6. Smart refrigerator
Enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants is at the core of health promotion. As such, health promotion may paradoxically be more important in this time of crisis than ever before. As a discipline within public health and a field of professional practice, health promotion can contribute to addressing the CoV-2 virus threat at different levels (Brownson et al., 2010): at the downstream level focusing on individual behaviour change and disease management, at the midstream level through interventions affecting organizations and communities and at the upstream level through informing policies affecting the population.
IMPROVING PREVENTIVE BEHAVIOUR CHANGE MEASURES
To contain the spread of the CoV-2 virus, health authorities have tried to enhance protective behaviour amongst citizens, first by issuing warnings and recommendations about the new virus, and at a later stage by imposing legal restrictions, in some cases involving a complete ‘lock-down’. These measures have met with varying degrees of success. Especially in the beginning of the epidemic the public’s response to warnings was often weak and ineffective, thus wasting opportunities to effectively contain the spread of the disease. And even when the scale of the problem became pandemic, a significant number of people did (and continue to) not strictly follow the recommendations. This lack of adherence is often condemned as irresponsible and selfish, but that need not necessarily be the case. Changing people’s behaviour is simply not as easy as just informing them of the risks. Years of research in protective health behaviour informed by theoretical models such as the Health Belief Model (Champion and Skinner, 2008) or the Protection Motivation Theory (Prentice-Dunn and Rogers, 1986) have shown that people will only act on health warnings if they:
While you're studying, pay attention to the material you know will be on a test and write a quick practice question. Start a new document on your laptop and add questions as you think of them.
大银行已经或多或少地放弃了用高薪留住人才的尝试。自金融危机以来，有一件事很清楚：如果你想暴富，就得去硅谷。露丝波拉特(Ruth Porat)在2015年树立了一个标杆，她放弃了摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)首席财务官约1300万美元的年薪，跳槽谷歌（如今的Alphabet）获得五倍于此的薪酬。
This slide in the dollar value of exports has entirely been a price effect, driven by lower commodity prices. In volume terms, emerging market exports have continued to rise since 2014, even if volume growth in year-on-year terms has moderated to around 2 per cent, a fraction of the double-digit rates witnessed either side of the global financial crisis, as the second chart shows.
On the other hand, the wide coverage of the pandemic by the media and the scope of the preventive measures that are taken also create anxiety. While a certain level of concern is an important driver for protective behaviour, too much anxiety can elicit cognitive avoidance strategies which minimize the perceived threat (Croyle et al., 2013). In a similar vein, an individual’s social identity needs in interaction with contextual factors can increase and mitigate the actual rejection of evidence—a phenomenon that is known as knowledge resistance (Klintman, 2019).
Nevertheless, changing people’s transmission-related behaviours across society remains important to flatten the peak of the epidemic. Drawing on widely accepted behaviour change principles, Michie et al. (2020) make the following recommendations to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 in the population:
Ashley Graham, 30, is the first ever curve model to make the highest-paid list, coming in at 10th place after banking $5.5 million from her lingerie and swimsuit lines contracts.
We are now in the midst of the most peaceful era of human history. Back in the 1940s, 300 out of every 100,000 people would die as a direct result of war. We’re happy to tell you that that figure is now less than 1.
While Cousins' volatile personality and high-usage tendencies present challenges, there are numerous justifications for rolling the dice:
ACKNOWLEDGING THE ROLE OF HEALTH LITERACY AND INFORMATION BIAS
In times of crisis people want to be well informed, so they know what individual preventive measures they must take and how they can deal with the consequences. With respect to COVID-19, there is an abundance of information available, with official and unofficial websites continuously updating recommendations and instructions, and news media covering the situation around the clock. The question is, however, whether all this information is useful. A bombardment of communication, although well intended, can create confusion. Therefore, coordination of key messaging between the health sector and other sectors is necessary in pandemic responses (Smith and Judd, 2020)
Moreover, for information to be helpful it must not only be available, but also understood, accepted and applied. Research on health literacy has shown that more than a third of the population worldwide has difficulties in finding, understanding, evaluating and using information that is necessary to manage their health (Sørensen et al., 2015; Duong et al., 2017). Authorities should take that into account when informing the public about COVID-19 and adapt the information to the literacy needs of the people they want to reach. That means the response to the pandemic should be looked at through an equity lens (Smith and Judd, 2020), with attention for those who are the most vulnerable in pandemics, such as elderly, migrants or people with disabilities. Okan et al. (2020) give the following recommendations to take health literacy into account when communicating about the CoV-2:
- 严打虚假房源 北京住建委处罚25家房产中介
- 国资委：央企6月实现利润总额2018.8亿元人民币 同比增长26.4%
Authorities also need to acknowledge that taking up health information is an active cognitive process. To inform themselves about the virus and ways to protect themselves, people actively select information sources and information from within these sources, some of which may be contradictory. Information processing theory teaches us that this selection is influenced by context, emotions and selective attention (Estes, 2014), thus introducing a potential selection bias whereby more attention is paid to some information than to other. The use of cognitive schemes to process this information adds another form of bias, namely confirmation bias (i.e. the tendency to seek information that confirms the beliefs already held and to ignore or discard information that contradicts these beliefs). Likewise, the activation of cognitive schemes to filter, classify and assimilate information and make connections with already available knowledge that takes place when trying to understand and appraise the information about the virus and to judge the importance of preventive measures can again cause a series of biases. In the context of the COVID-19 crisis, the most important ones are possibly negative information bias (i.e. the tendency to attach more importance to negative than to positive information, resulting in « catastrophic thinking »), positive information bias (i.e. the tendency to consider oneself as less at risk for negative consequence, causing « unrealistic optimism »), and familiarity or recency bias (i.e. things that are familiar or recent are more easily retrieved from memory and therefore more easily considered as « true »).
But because I can’t help but hope that with the end of “Mad Men” comes the end of a period in fashion that has seen designers become trapped in the past to an almost stifling degree. At least the past as it looked in the 1960s (which in the beginning, let us not forget, looked a lot like the late 1950s) and early ’70s.
Chinese tech giant Lenovo, however, remained at the top of the market - owning more than 20% of it. HP followed in second place, with Dell third and Apple and ASUS tied for the fourth spot.
In addition, the top-ranking cities typically performed poorly in costs and culture and lifestyle. China's "cities of opportunity" continue to face challenges when it comes to building cities that satisfy the needs of the populace and provide a high quality of life.
And England ? Well, maybe the best thing to say is that this time, for once, no-one is really expecting anything, and just even getting out of the group is going to be a bonus.
Awards: Despite early wins for VW’s Golf GTI, the Detroit-centric jurors of the North American Car and Truck award 2015 prizes to Ford’s Mustang as well as Ford’s F-150 pickup truck.
3. Do I take time out of my day purely for myself? We all need a little “me time.” Set aside some time every day to just relax and do something that you enjoy, whether that is reading, meditating, watching TV, cooking, spending quality time with your loved ones, etc.
To counter these effects, some basic principles can be applied to limit the spread of biased, false or misleading information, such as encouraging people to cross check the accuracy and credibility of information, to check the source of information (where does it come from, who is behind the information, what is the intention, why was it shared, when was it published), to verify the information by consulting a second source, to consult family members and trusted health professionals about information that is ‘doubtful’, and to think twice before sharing information that has not been fact-checked (Okan et al., 2020).
EMPOWERING ORGANIZATIONS AND COMMUNITIES
While preventing the further spread of COVID-19 relies heavily on informing and encouraging the population to adopt protective behaviours, these efforts may be more successful if the advice from experts is combined with local community knowledge. Experience with the way the Ebola epidemic was responded to in African countries shows that in an environment of trust, community partners can help to improve the understanding of disease control protocols and suggest moderate changes that better reflect the community’s sensitivities without compromising safety (Marais et al., 2015). Such an approach not only prevents stigmatization and fear-driven responses among affected individuals, families and communities that can hamper preventive efforts, but also act as a powerful lever to enhance adherence and mobilize community engagement.
So here are the main items to take into consideration if you’re trying to develop a business platform. These elements constitute will support a smart strategy for any new enterprise:
But the carriers are having a more difficult time over the winter holidays. About 30 percent of winter holiday flights were delayed in 2012, on top of significant delays in 2011 and 2010. You can check holiday flight statistics from the Transportation Department on its website.
v. 构成，把 ...
Wang said the journal and authors had an unavoidable responsibility in the latest scandal, with the statement adding that Tumor Biology had retracted papers over similar concerns about the peer review process in 2015.
Coca-Cola said that the consumer slowdown in China had hit sales, and weaker demand was forcing it to drive down inventory.
This includes McKinsey, the consultancy that kick-started its secretive leadership election process in October with a gathering of more than 500 senior partners at the Grosvenor House Hotel in London. The next stage involves the firm’s 550 senior partners voting on a shortlist of candidates to replace Dominic Barton — the incumbent since 2009 — in January, followed by a run-off between the two most popular candidates in February.
Feud: Bette and Joan
Will Tesla produce more than 250,000 Model 3s
Negative emotions such as worrying, stress, depression and anger visit type D personalities more often. A small event that is usually overlooked by others can bother a type D a lot and even ruin his mood.
As early as 2008, wearable technology—which can range in anything from measuring your heart rate to curating music based on your mood—has been touted as the next big moment in consumer electronics.
3. Will Guo Jingjing, China's diving queen, get married in 2010?
Without the cut, Hollande would have earned 255,600 euros a year ($274,522), second only to Obama. Now he makes $198,700. Famously, his personal hairdresser makes $132,000 a year.
联系方式:Staci Donegan and Peter Westley, Celia Dunn Sotheby’s International Realty, (912) 247-2052 / (912) 660-5169; celiadunnsir.com
Health promotion has a long tradition of helping organizations and communities to increase control over the factors that define health. The Ottawa Charter emphasizes the importance of community action, in the sense of needs assessments, setting priorities, joint planning, capacity building, strengthening local partnerships, intersectoral working and enhancing public participation and social support (Nutbeam, 1998). All of these activities aim to create empowered communities, where individuals and organizations apply their skills and resources in collective efforts to address health priorities and meet their respective health needs. Importantly, community action builds on the existing strengths and capacities within a community, to further strengthen its resilience.
The models, strategies and case examples of successful community action and empowerment documented by health promotion researchers and practitioners over the years can provide guidance to communities facing the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic. In a similar way, the expertise of health promotors with creating healthy settings, or places where people actively use and shape the (organizational) environment so as to create or solve problems relating to health, can be a source of inspiration and support for schools, universities and workplaces that have to deal with the longer-term disruptive effects of the pandemic. Such actions can take different forms, but will usually involve some form of organizational development, including changes to the physical environment, the organizational structure, the administration and even the management (Nutbeam, 1998).
LEARNING FROM THE CRISIS
David said: ‘It was wonderful, you couldn’t fault it. It was perfection.’
Wang said the journal and authors had an unavoidable responsibility in the latest scandal, with the statement adding that Tumor Biology had retracted papers over similar concerns about the peer review process in 2015.
One thing that has become clear in the current crisis is that infectious diseases can pose a major threat to public health. In its effort to move away from a strongly disease-oriented approach to public health, health promotion has traditionally focused on non-communicable disease, where it has significantly contributed to the progress made in areas like tobacco and obesity prevention. But with the exception of HIV/AIDS, the application of health promotion principles and methods to tackle infectious diseases has been largely neglected. As a result, public health professionals who deal with communicable diseases are often unaware of the approaches used by health promoters (ECDC, 2014), although there is a good reason to assume that these can be usefully adapted and applied to preventing infectious diseases as well. That would require, however, that health promotion researchers and practitioners develop a keen interest in infectious diseases. McQueen (2015) argues that to further the cause of health promotion applied to both infectious and non-communicable disease, health promotion needs to focus more on intervention research and understand the processes involved in implementation, rather than on outcomes and causality. As interventions are dynamic and subject to change during implementation, participatory methods should be further developed, recognized and documented in the scientific literature and in research protocols.
A second lesson to be learnt from the COVID-19 crisis is that human health is not an isolated issue. There is a general consensus that the SARS-CoV-2 virus is of animal origin, jumped species boundaries to infect humans either before or after it evolved to its current pathogenic state (Andersen et al., 2020), and could then very rapidly spread in a globalized economic system characterized by high levels of interconnectedness and mobility. Health promotion has never paid much attention to zoonotic causes of human health, but the current crisis suggests that maybe it should. A good starting point would be to embrace the concept of ‘One Health’, which recognizes the interconnection between people, animals, plants and their shared environment, with the goal to achieve optimal health outcomes (Atlas et al., 2010; Calistri et al., 2013). After all, the collaborative, multisectoral and transdisciplinary nature of the One Health approach is very much akin to health promotion’s principles and strategies. It also links very well with the growing interest of health promotion researchers and practitioners for sustainable development, as exemplified by recent projects (e.g. INHERIT; https://www.inherit.eu) and by the choice of ‘planetary health and sustainable development’ as the theme for the latest IUHPE World Conference on Health Promotion (Ratima, 2019).
A third lesson to be drawn from the COVID-19 pandemic is that health promotion should not wait until a crisis happens, but prepare itself to respond swiftly. To deal with an epidemic effectively, we must not only understand viruses and how they spread, but also the ways in which people make decisions, organizations operate and communities relate in reaction to them (家居商业文明的反思：进步背后的浮躁). Health promotion researchers should learn from crisis situations, analyse the reactions and document the learnings. A good example is the way the Singaporean government dealt with the SARS outbreak in 2003, where it was shown that, rather than the actual knowledge about the virus, the high confidence and trust in the government’s ability to cope with SARS was a key factor in controlling the crisis (Deurenberg-Yap et al., 2005). This confirms findings from other studies highlighting the importance of trust in dealing with crisis situations (Siegrist and Zingg, 2014). In a similar vein, a comparison between the response to Hurricane Katarina in New Orleans and to SARS in Toronto put the success of the Toronto response down to social cohesion (Matthews, 2006, cited by 家居品牌“联姻” 跨界合作成未来趋势). These and other findings call for further research on the ways trust in public institutions can be enhanced and social capital can be mobilized in order to make populations more resilient against crises.
BEIJING: A group of Hyundai Motor Co dealers in China is seeking 800 million-900 million yuan ($120 million-135 million) in compensation from the South Korean automaker, saying Hyundai has cut the flow of models it exports to them, resulting in dealership losses and closures.
He was under the impression people clicking on the adverts would earn him money. But instead he was charged every time someone clicked on the link.
Saif held the highest position among the five ranked Chinese schools, just ahead of Guanghua School of Management and Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management, 17th and 18th respectively.
在根据真实罪案改编的电影《狐狸猎手》(Foxcatcher)中，以出演喜剧闻名的演员史蒂夫·卡瑞尔(Steve Carell)饰演大富翁约翰·E·杜邦(John E. du Pont)时隐藏在假面具后面。这个造型最突出的就是鸟嘴状鼻子。
2. Wells Fargo
“Airbnb is here to stay,” Mr. Gottsegen said. “Instead of fighting it, we should wrap our arms around it and make it better.”
Yet there are similarities between the demagogic elements of the Brexit campaign and the rise of Mr Trump.