Bromelain is a protein-digesting (proteolytic) enzyme complex that’s found in pineapple (Ananas comosus). The enzyme is present both in the fruit itself and in higher concentrations in the stem. It can hydrolyze or break down a variety of types of protein in both acid and alkaline environments.
Originally isolated in the late 1800s, bromelain includes a family of sulfhydryl-containing enzymes found in pineapple. Besides proteolytic enzymes, bromelain contains other enzymes, including a peroxidase, acid phosphatase, several protease inhibitors and organically bound calcium. Bromelain plays a key role in digestion, and perhaps more importantly, its properties have prompted many practitioners to use it as an agent in wound healing and the prevention of illness and irritation for decades.
What Does Bromelain Do?
The proteolytic enzymes in bromelain break down protein. This has fairly obvious benefits when you consider that most high-protein foods have been thoroughly cooked, which destroys most of the naturally occurring enzymes. Bromelain assists the body's digestive mechanisms in reducing very large, complex protein molecules into smaller peptide units or individual amino acids. These smaller peptide units are crucial for your body’s production of muscle tissue, neurotransmitters, and other protein-based molecules.
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The Health Benefits of Bromelain
Traditionally, indigenous peoples from South America used pineapples to reduce digestive upset and reduce irritation, as well as other therapeutic uses. Here are some of the other amazing health benefits of this enzyme, as well as the studies that support the benefits of bromelain.
1. Reduces Swelling and Redness
Bromelain was approved in Europe as an effective remedy for swelling after surgery. Research shows that the bromelain enzyme may lower swelling, stop bruising, speed up healing time, and reduce discomfort following surgical procedures. One double-blind study of over 150 women who received episiotomies (surgical cuts in the perineum) during childbirth, found that women given large servings of oral bromelain over a period of three days, beginning four hours after delivery, showed a huge decrease in swelling, and discomfort. Ninety percent of women taking the supplement showed excellent recovery compared to 44% of women in the placebo group.
2. Eases Sinus Discomfort
Bromelain is one of the most popular supplements in European countries such as Germany, where it is commonly used for sinus discomfort. Some research suggests that bromelain is effective at reducing discomfort and swelling.
3. Assists Burn and Wound Recovery
Due to its beneficial properties, bromelain has long been used on wounds, and it’s being studied for topical applications for burns, injuries, and gunshot wounds. Studies in humans and animals show that bromelain helps slough off dead tissue from wounds and burns. Other studies show it promotes healing when applied topically to second- and third-degree burns.
4. Helps Insect Bites and Stings
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5. Assists After Sports Injuries
Studies show that bromelain may speed up healing time after a physical or sports injury. Taking it has been linked to reduced swelling from sprains, strains, bruises, and other minor muscle injuries.
6. Helps Relieve Bone Discomfort
7. Soothes Varicose Veins and Hemorrhoids
Because it has positive effects on swelling, irritation, and wound healing, bromelain is used in alternative medicine to soothe hemorrhoids and other conditions of the veins.
8. Digests Mucus in Lungs and Nose
Several studies suggest that bromelain may help reduce coughing and lessen mucus related to sinusitis, as well as reduce the swelling and redness that accompany hay fever.[9, 10] The German Commission E approved the bromelain enzyme for aiding imbalances of the ear, nose, and throat that occur after surgery, and for reducing general sinus infection swelling.
9. Normalizes Indigestion and Heartburn
Because of its protease capacities, this enzyme may normalize digestive processes, particularly helping with indigestion and heartburn. Studies show that it is particularly effective when used in combination with other enzymes like amylase (which digests carbohydrates) and lipase (which digests fat). Other studies show bromelain has reduced bloating and gas.
10. Balances the Acidity of the Stomach
Research shows that bromelain can help balance the acidity of the stomach, as well as the alkalinity of the small intestine. A recent lab study confirms that this enzyme may help ease harmful organism related diarrhea. Another study suggests that it may be an up-and-coming natural remedy for IBD (inflammatory bowel disease).
11. Boosts Overall Immune Health
Bromelain may boost overall immune strength in the human body. One German clinical study found that oral supplementation of bromelain could help stimulate immune function in women. Other studies suggest that commercial preparations with multiple proteolytic and non-proteolytic enzymes may boost the amount of certain immune system hormones, called cytokines (made in white blood cells). Recent studies suggest that bromelain may help relieve some of the standard cancer side effects related to lowered immunity.
12. Keeps Blood Flowing Normally
Several laboratory (in vitro) and human (in vivo) studies suggest that bromelain may stop blood platelets from forming clots inside the body, which can minimize the impacts of severe heart and brain conditions in which clotting can be a concern. This is exciting research on bromelain’s effects on heart and brain health.
13. Repels Harmful Organisms
A review of multiple studies suggest that bromelain possesses action against harmful organisms, and it may be effective for ailments resulting from their presence. Used in conjunction with antibiotics, bromelain and enzyme therapy worked wonders in cases related to lung and urinary health.
Understanding the Units of Measurement for Bromelain
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The 2017 FT executive education rankings include the best 85 customised programmes and the best 75 open-enrolment programmes worldwide. The rankings are based principally on measures of participants’ and clients’ satisfaction, as well as the schools’ growth in revenues, their international reach and faculty diversity.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) creates the standard measurements for supplements. These are published in the USP’s Foods Chemical Codex (FCC), an internationally accepted compendium of standards for the quality of food ingredients, supplements, and additives. One PU is how much of the papain enzyme that frees up one mcg of tyrosine per hour during the test.
Where Can I Find the Best Source of Bromelain?
VeganZyme® is an advanced full-spectrum systemic and digestive enzyme formula. Free of fillers and toxic compounds, it contains digestive enzymes, which help digest fats (lipids), sugars, proteins, carbohydrates, gluten, fruits and vegetables, cereals, legumes, bran, nuts and seeds, soy, dairy, and all other food sources.
VeganZyme contains a 100% vegan form of bromelain extracted from the pineapple (Ananas comosus). It comes from non-GMO sources, is kosher certified, gluten free, and completely suitable for vegetarians and vegans.
It was Somerset Maugham who said the French Riviera is “a sunny place for shady people” – and looking around at all the 'models' in the hotel lobbies and the men in dark sunglasses who seemed to know them, I knew what he meant. Behind the festival's shiny facade, there is an unseemly side – and beneath the azure waters, a polluted mess. The French diver and environmentalist Laurent Lombard's video of the Cannes seabed strewn with waste and debris went viral before the festival began. We were assured there was no danger to swimmers, and the mayor had it cleaned up according to the Daily Mail – but the Med had certainly lost some of its sparkle.
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简言之，无叶风扇就是没有叶片的风扇。它的工作原理是先将空气吸入风扇基座内部，然后通过扇头环形上的洞将空气吹出。这款风扇据说是詹姆斯·戴森发明的，并命名为"气流倍增器"。就像可以飞行的喷气背包一样，无叶风扇被《时代周刊》评为"2009年度伟大发明"之一，同样它也不是世界上第一个无叶风扇。实际上，第一个无叶风扇于1981年被日本的东京芝区电力公司获得专利。尽管东京芝区电力公司的无叶风扇并没有用于生产制造，但詹姆斯的无叶风扇的原始设计与其设计相似，所以专利局拒绝授予詹姆斯这个专利。尽管授予东京芝区电力公司的专利已经过期，但在授予詹姆斯这项新专利之前，专利局需要他提供该设计的创新之处。詹姆斯的经理吉尔·斯密斯并没有否认这两种无叶风扇间的相似性，只是说两者间的差异在于所用"科技"不同。." Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(4),431-5.
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- Rathnavelu V, et al. "对于俄罗斯这一前苏联（解体于1991年）的15个继任国之一，在2015年还能否稳坐世界大国的宝座，仍有讨论的余地。." Biomed Rep. 2016;5(3),283–288.
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