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By Frank Magallanes

Written: January 24, 2006












I have written this article to inform hobbyist what piranha and pirambeba feed on when to comes to certain fruits and seeds in their native habitat. While many of these types of foods are not readily available in grocery or supermarkets, some might be.


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n. 回想,记忆,纪念品
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According to Devon Graham (Margarita Tours, Inc) - For fruits from the Euphorbiaceae and Palm families - most of these are not sweet fruits, but are somewhat oily and high in lipids and proteins - same is true for Lauraceae (which includes fruits like avocado), hence piscivory isn't necessary to maintain protein in the diet, and it is probably easier for a piranha to hang out under a fruiting tree during high water and just feed on falling fruit than it is for it to hunt fish when they are so widely dispersed through the forest.



What fruit/seeds are found?


There is a tree called the piranha-tree (Piranhea trifoliata. Euphorbiaceae family) which produces a huge seed crop. Another shrub-like tree has berry-like fruit that fish can pluck from its branches when the forest is flooded, Alchornea species (Euphorbiaceae family). This tree grows along riverbanks and lake flood plain. Some other berry-like fruit includes; Passion fruit (Passiflora species) Wild Soursop (Annona species), Cecropia species, Wild guava (Myrtaceae), Melon family (Cucurbitaceae) and Ficus species (Moraceae). Other examples include drupes eaten by tambaqui and probably piranha also; Louro (Lauraceceae) Sapotaceae, Uxi (Licania species), and Cajurana (Simaba, now known as Quassia species, Simaroubaceae family).


The Brazil nut tree has several species in the family (Lecythidaceae) which fish like piranha and pacu feed on. The large seeds of Lecythis species fall into the water after the fruits skin opens to release its seeds. Other types are also included in the families Leguminosae and Bignoniaceae. Other large fruits that pacu feed on (the seeds that disperse once cracked open and eaten by piranha) is Catoré (Crataeva benthami). It is one of the largest fruits on which the tambaqui feeds (Araujo-Lima and Goulding).
















  1. Apocynaceae - Macoubea species - grows in flooded forest, fruits ripen at high water.

  2. Aquifoliaceae - Ilex inundata - abundant fruit at high water - most fish seem to completely ignore the fruit, however - they are somewhat bitter tasting.

  3. Cucurbitaceae - unidentified fruit/flower from a curcubit growing at the edge of a river and overhanging the water.

  4. Euphorbiaceae - Hevea braziliensis (rubber tree) - fruits from a tree on the Amazon floodplain - green and dried fruits - the capsule splits open. releasing 3 seeds, or the entire capsule falls into the water where it is broken open by fish like gamitana.

  5. Passifloraceae - fruits of Passiflora vitifolia - a very common passionflower of varzea forest.

  6. Capparadicaeae - Crateva sp. fruit - a common plant on river edges - fruits at high water and fruits are broken open and used as bait by local people.

  7. Gurania rhizantha - Fruit and flower from Madre Selva Preserve on Rio Orosa, Peruvian Amazon.

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- Pygopristis denticulata; seeds, fruits and rest animals

- Pristobrycon calmoni; seeds and rest fish

- Pristobrycon maculipinnis; seeds and rest fish

- Serrasalmus gouldingi; fruits, seeds and the rest fish scales

- Serrasalmus manueli; fruit, seeds and the fish parts.

- Serrasalmus rhombeus; Stomach contents include seeds.

- Pygocentrus nattereri. - See link prior to 2005 study by field researchers.

- errasalmus aff brandtii.

Devon also had the following remarks regarding Pygocentrus nattereri feeding on fruit. I don't know if they regularly do it in the wild under completely natural situations, but they do regularly take fruit as bait when fishing with hook and line - local people often catch them on fruit baits as do visitors to the Amazon. According to Devon, a piece of banana is used as a bait to capture these toothy fish on a hook.


adj. 有益的,有利的


- Pygocentrus cariba - Not known

- Pygocentrus piraya - Not known




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Hitachi Data Systems
'I thought I was going to sell the app in the Apple store for a pound or two each, and then I'd use the money to buy a new computer,' says D'Aloisio. 'I'd never had any contact from an investor before. And now here's an email supposedly from a Hong Kong billionaire. It sounded dodgy. I didn't respond the first time. They had to email me again.' D'Aloisio was accompanied by his mother and father ('they were a bit bewildered, it was kind of insane') as he took a meeting with Horizons Ventures's representatives in London in August 2011. The meeting ended with D'Aloisio receiving a seed investment of $300,000.


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Granted, it is easier to remake something than to make something new. Anyone who has faced a blank page knows that. But if fashion’s ubiquitous default to the 1960s over the last seven years has exposed anything, it is its own lack of imagination, not only about clothes and consumers, but about the relationship of culture and dress.


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"Everywhere I go business owners are seeing an increase in demand," said Gus Faucher, senior economist at PNC Financial Services. "Businesses will have to raise wages to attract or maintain workers."

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3. The 2012 Ig Nobel Accoustics Prize
Official data indicates a total of 81 feature length films, including 47 Chinese titles, surpassed the 100 million yuan box office threshold.


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Gary Oldman on blistering form as Winston Churchill.
But the change in Wall Street’s — and Silicon Valley’s — appreciation of Mr Cook is down to more than just the 70m iPhones Apple is expected to sell this quarter or the $42bn in sales generated in the previous.


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Technology:Cadillac will introduce high-resolution video streaming in the rearview mirror, which improves the field of vision by about four times greater than a traditional mirror by removing obstructions like pillars and passengers. Just the thing for aging Cadillac drivers with stiff necks. Coming next: a “beep, beep, beep” signal like that used by garbage trucks whenever the car is driven in reverse.


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摩根士丹利的分析师乔纳斯认为,Model X的销量将会更加可观,但不是由于它的燃油经济性,而是它升级后的信息娱乐系统,以及独特的“鹰翼”式后车门。他还表示,如果Model X没有赢得所有的年度车型大奖,他会非常失望。他并不是唯一一个这样想的人。埃隆o穆斯克和其他很多祈祷特斯拉继续保持当前势头的人当然也会这样想。(财富中文网)


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圣文森特(St. Vincent),《数码证人》(Digital Witness), Loma Vista/Republic


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There was no indication of the identity of the kidnappers or their motive.
德银资产管理公司(Deutsche AM)亚太区被动型资产管理部门主管马尔科?蒙塔纳里(Marco Montanari)也认为,在亚洲ETF市场迈向更高台阶之前,必须从根本上改革分销制度。


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《江南Style》击败《Call Me Maybe》成为最受热捧的流行歌曲,而《007:天降杀机》战胜了《普罗米修斯》成为最多人查询的电影。
In 2016, China's box-office experienced a shock correction, with growth plummeting to just 3.7 percent from a roaring 48 percent rate in 2015.


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“疲软的国内需求和大宗商品价格下跌继续拖累中国的进口增长,”澳新银行(ANZ bank)经济学家刘利刚表示。“展望未来,中国的出口行业仍将面临一些重大不利因素。”
1999:H9N2传染人类1999: H9N2 Infects Humans

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More than 110 new and returning series made the shortlist for this roundup before being whittled down to the 20 that appear here. (And that’s without the HBO shows “True Detective,” which is being moved to later in the year, and “Game of Thrones,” “Veep” and “Silicon Valley,” whose April premiere dates haven’t been announced.) From a “Breaking Bad” spinoff, to the return of “Broadchurch,” to the final season of “Justified,” the winter is high season for the serious TV watcher.


今年由美国电影学会的电影评审总监是Tom Pollock,担任电视剧评审总监的是Richard Frank。评审团的其他成员还包括Judd Apatow, Halle Berry, Jamie Lee Curtis, Leonard Maltin,来自知名大学的著作家,学者,公认的电影艺术家,还有像媒体NPR,Rolling Stone, TV Guide, 华盛顿邮报对于电视电影的评论家们。
11 August


n. 财产


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FKA twigs “Two Weeks” (Young Turks)


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Sinta Nuriyah carries forth her family’s campaign in Indonesia, holding interfaith events and establishing a network of progressive Islamic boarding schools for girls.
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Pyongyang, which refers to Park as "human scum' has long condemned the balloon launches and in recen onths has stepped up its demands for Seoul to ban them.




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总排名76位的新加坡管理大学(Singapore Management University)李光前商学院(Lee Kong Chian School of Business)是首家进入这一排行榜的新加坡商学院。今年共7家亚洲商学院上榜。李光前商学院校友在亚洲商学院中最具国际流动性。他们在流动性指标方面排名第25,比在亚洲商学院中流动性排第二的台湾国立中山大学(National Sun Yat-Sen University)高57位。


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