HTTP/1.0 200 OK Cache-Control: private, must-revalidate Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Wed, 02 Dec 2020 07:07:53 GMT Expires: -1 Pragma: no-cache 菠萝彩票下载
You are viewing a javascript disabled version of the site. Please enable Javascript for this site to function properly.
Go to headerGo to navigationGo to searchGo to contentsGo to footer
超六成房企年度目标难完成 年终放量不改大势

Yoga Effects on Brain Health: A Systematic Review of the Current Literature


“Soft domestic demand and the decline in commodity prices continued to weigh on China’s import growth,” said Liu Li-gang, an economist at ANZ bank. “Looking ahead, China’s export sector will continue to face significant headwinds.”
Graduates of Tsinghua University make more money, on average, than those from any other college in China, results of a recent survey showed.
导演贝尼特·米勒(Bennett Miller)认为卡瑞尔是饰演杜邦的合适人选,但不想让观众一眼就认出他来。他要求造型师比尔·科森(Bill Corso)改变卡瑞尔的外貌。
While Insead’s joint programme dropped back into second place, its single-school programme moved up three places to fourth, a place it last occupied in 2011.
The top 20 comprises 13 US universities, four British and three others.
China has ample foreign exchange reserves to satisfy the demands of imports and short-term debt repayments.
A sub-index tracking activity at larger enterprises softened 0.7 points to 53.1, while mid-sized companies fell 1.3 points to 49.9, indicating slight contraction. That for smaller manufacturers fell 0.4 points to 49, indicating worsening contraction.
n. 框,结构,骨架
The top obsession of 2010 was the much-anticipated iPhone, followed by actress Lindsay Lohan, the iPad, and the television shows "Glee" and "Jersey Shore".
“The Man Who Knew is an impressive work of scholarship,” Lionel Barber, editor of the FT and chair of the book award judges, said. “It’s a masterpiece of political economy and, above all, it’s a great and enjoyable read.”
The next biggest provincial provinces were Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Henan and Sichuan, finishing in the same position as 2015.
About 40 per cent of entrepreneurs did not seek any help when securing finance. Half of these raised equity purely from their own savings and/or family and friends compared with only 40 per cent of those who sought help from the school or alumni network.
"It is my belief that due to their lack of ability to curve cheat codes and others from modifying their game, they are using a 14-year-old child as a scapegoat to make an example of him," she said.


The practice of yoga dates back over 2000 years to ancient India, with a focus on the unification of the mind, body, and spirit through the practice of physical movements, meditation and breathing exercises. Over the course of its lengthy existence, many different schools of yoga have emerged, each placing a different emphasis on the practice. However, despite their different philosophies and combinations of exercises, they all are integrated in the common theme of uniting the mind and body. Yoga’s prominence in western civilization emerged in the late 20th century. Although a review of the PubMed search on yoga yields the earliest scientific studies dating to 1948, there has been an exponential increase in publications beginning in the 2000s (see Fig. 1). While its origins root from religious principles, modern day culture is primarily drawn to it for its relaxation benefits (meditation and breathing exercises) and stretching and strengthening movements (physical poses). According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), yoga is the most popular form of complementary therapy practiced by more than 13 million adults, with 58% of adults citing maintenance of health and well-being as their reason for practice [1]. One of the reasons for yoga’s increase in popularity is its versatility, in that it can be taught at a range of different intensities. A systematic review by Larson-Meyer examined [2] the metabolic energy expenditure during Hatha yoga, the most widely practiced style of yoga in the United States. The review found that, while some specific yoga poses can be metabolically exerting (with energy expenditures >3 METS), most yoga practices fall under the American College of Sport Medicine’s criteria of “light-intensity physical activity” (2–2.9 METS) [3]. Compared to traditional forms of aerobic and anaerobic exercise, the relatively low-impact, modifiable nature of yoga can offer a middle ground for individuals with movement limitations, clinical diagnoses, and is particularly suitable for aging populations. Yoga’s focus on improving the self through both physical and mental practices incorporates more mindful elements absent in traditional forms of exercise.


In addition, the 1980 stamps were designed by Huang Yongyu, 92, a well-known Chinese master painter, making it a collectible item with extreme value.

Search results from PubMed featuring the term “yoga” in the title and/or abstract of publications over the years shows an exponential growth in yoga research beginning in the 2000s.

Indeed, the practice of engaging the mind and body through meditation, breathing and physical poses has attracted significant attention from the medical community, and yoga has been frequently studied for its possible beneficial effects on physical and mental health outcomes. Systemic and meta-analytic reviews of randomized control trials have found positive associations between yoga practice and improvements in diabetes [4, 5], cardiovascular function [6], and musculoskeletal conditions [2, 3]. There is also considerable evidence for the beneficial effects of yoga practice on mental health including anxiety [9], stress [10, 11] depression [12, 13] and overall mental health [14]. Typically, yoga has been studied as an adjunct therapy in these studies conducted with adults and older adults often with clinical diagnoses. For example, Lin and colleagues [15] conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of yoga on psychological health, quality of life, and physical health of patients with cancer. They concluded that the yoga groups showed significantly greater improvements in psychological health, as indicated by anxiety, depression, distress, and stress levels, when compared with the waitlist or supportive groups.

Yoga’s acute and intervention effects on cognition are evident in a recent meta-analysis [16] which reported moderate effect sizes for attention, processing speed and executive function measures for studies conducted with adult populations. Yoga practice enables the practitioner to move in a controlled manner into modifiable physical postures concentrating initially on relaxing their body, breathing rhythmically, and developing awareness of the sensations in their body and thoughts in their mind. In addition to the physical benefits from sequentially completing the postures, the breathing (pranayama) and meditation exercises included in yoga are practiced to calm and focus the mind and develop greater self-awareness [17]. It is hypothesized that this combination of metacognitive thought and bodily proprioception during yoga practice could generalize to conventionally assessed cognitive functions including attention, memory, and higher-order executive functions. However, it is currently unknown if this relationship exists as a direct pathway, or if yoga indirectly influences cognitive functions through processes such as affective regulation. Negative affect including depression and stress are known to detrimentally impact both cognitive functioning [18] and brain structure [19] and systematic reviews discussed earlier have demonstrated the potential of yoga to improve anxiety, depression, stress and overall mental health.

Yoga has particularly gained traction as a research area of interest in its promising potential as a therapy to combat the alarming increase in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Older adults are the fastest growing population in the US and around the world with over 2 billion people expected to be ≥60 years of age by 2050 [20]. Age is the biggest risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, the most common cause of dementia in those aged 65 and older. In the absence of any effective treatments to cure the disease or manage its symptoms, researchers have explored the potential of modifying lifestyle behaviors such as nutrition and physical activity to drive beneficial plasticity of the aging brain and remediate age-related cognitive decline. Yoga may be an alternative form of physical activity which may help not only older adults achieve recommended levels of physical activity, but also for individuals who have disabilities or symptoms that prevent them from performing more vigorous forms of exercise.

节目24 土耳其风情舞蹈《火》,土耳其火舞舞蹈团
Will oil finish 2018 above $70 a barrel


Literature search and study selection

Former world number one Woods has not won a single tournament since 2013 and missed most of the last year recovering from surgery on his back. However, his name alone continued to bank him millions. He earned pound 31 million from endorsement deals with brands including Nike and Titleist, placing him 12th in the list of top earners.
It is estimated that over 89m enterprise retirees and more than 17m institution retirees will benefit from the adjustment.
Release date: Spring 2015
5. The 2012 Ig Nobel Chemistry Prize
Video editors likely benefited from the same factors that caused the increase in photography jobs. It stands to reason that this kind of work expands alongside the need for increasingly sophisticated and appealing website designs.
Bond King Bill Gross admits, 'QE must end.' Trillions of cheap money 'has distorted incentives and inflated asset prices to artificial levels.' But now Gross says 'the Fed plan may be too hasty.'

Study inclusion criteria were peer reviewed and published cross-sectional, longitudinal or intervention studies examining the role of holistic yoga practice that included physical postures, breathing and meditation. Study outcomes needed to include brain health measures assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including functional MRI (fMRI) or single photon emission computed tomography scan (SPECT) or position emission tomography (PET). Figure 2 presents the PRISMA flowchart that summarizes the study selection process. Studies examining the sole effects of meditation or mindfulness were excluded as they have been reviewed elsewhere (21, 22) and do not meet the holistic definition of yoga practice. After screening for inclusion criteria, 11 studies were included in this review. These studies were categorized based on the outcome variables measured, into two groups: “Effects of Yoga Practice on Brain Structure” that describes the structural characteristics of the brain associated with yoga practice, and “Effects of Yoga Practice on Brain Function” that describes investigations of regions showing differential activation or connectivity in the context of yoga practice.


Prisma flowchart.

Prisma flowchart.


Study characteristics

As seen in Table 1, this literature is very nascent, as evident from our literature search returning 11 relevant studies published between 2009 and 2019. Most of the studies (n = 6) were cross-sectional and therefore exploratory in nature, whereas 5 intervention studies examined the yoga-brain outcome relationships over study durations ranging between 10 and 24 weeks. All studies have been conducted with adult populations, with 5 studies having a mean age greater than 65 years, suggesting older adult samples.

Table 1


Study author (Year)Sample size; characteristics; Mean Age; Male:FemaleStyle of YogaStudy designCategorization of Yoga Group/practitioner and controlsImaging methodologyStudy findings
Santaella (2019)N = 40; healthy female older adults – 20 yoga practitioners and 20 controls; 67.35 years; 0 : 40HathaCross-sectional8+ years of at least bi-weekly Hatha yoga practice vs. no yoga or mindfulness experienceResting-state fMRIGreater resting-state anteroposterior functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and right angular gyrus among yoga experts
Garner (2019)N = 102; healthy young adults- 39 randomized to yoga, 32 to a sport control group, and 31 to a passive control group; 22.8 years; 16 : 86HathaInterventionAll yoga and sport control participants had not practiced yoga or similar mind-body exercises for at least 6 months.MRIIncrease in right hippocampal GM density among yoga group.
Gothe (2018)N = 26; healthy adults – 13 yoga experts and 13 controls; 35.75 years; 2 : 24HathaCross-sectional3+ years of weekly yoga experience vs. no yoga or mind-body therapy experienceMRI+ task-based fMRILarger GM volume in the left hippocampus among yoga experts
Lower dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activity during encoding phase of working memory task among yoga experts
Afonso (2017)N = 42; older adults – 21 experts and 21 controls; 67.05 years; 0 : 21HathaCross-sectional8+ years of yoga experience vs. no yoga or mindfulness experienceMRIGreater cortical thickness in left prefrontal lobe region, including lateral middle frontal gyrus, anterior and dorsal superior frontal gyrus among yoga experts
Yang (2016)N = 25, healthy older adults with MCI – 14 randomized to yogic meditation and 11 to memory enhancement training; 67.4 years; 13 : 12Kirtan Kriya+Kundalini YogaIntervention1-hour/week for 12 weeks + daily homeworkMRI + 1H-MRSDecrease in choline-containing compounds in bilateral hippocampus in the memory enhancement training group
Increased GM volume in bilateral hippocampal in the memory enhancement training group
No significant changes in yoga group
Eyre (2016)N = 25; healthy older adults with MCI – 14 randomized to yogic meditation and 11 to memory enhancement training; 67.4 years; 13 : 12Kirtan Kriya+Kundalini YogaIntervention1-hour/week for 12 weeks + daily homeworkResting-state fMRIImproved verbal memory performance which correlated with changes in functional connectivity in the DMN, significant clusters included the ACC, FMC, PCC, MFG and LOC among both groups
Improved verbal memory performance correlated with increased connectivity between the default mode network and frontal medial cortex, pregunal anterior cingulate cortex, right middle frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left lateral occipital cortex
Improved verbal memory performance positively correlated with increased connectivity between language processing network and left inferior frontal gyrus
Improved visuospatial memory performance correlated inversely with connectivity between superior parietal network and medial parietal cortex
Villemure (2015)N = 28; healthy adults – 14 yoga experts and 14 controls; 36.85 years; 10 : 18All types (that integrated physical postures, breath control exercises and meditation.)Cross-sectionalNo defined criteria, open-ended questions to determine yoga expertise resulting in average yoga experience range of 6–16 yearsMRINo correlation between age and whole-brain total GM volume among yoga experts (negative correlation in controls)
Positive correlation between years of yoga practice and GM volume in left mid-insula, left frontal operculum, left orbitofrontal cortex and right middle temporal gyrus
Positive correlation between weekly hours of practice and GM volume in right primary somatosensory cortex and superior parietal lobe, left hippocampus, midline precuneus/posterior cingulate cortices, and right primary visual cortex
Postures and meditation predicted hippocampal, precuneus/PCC and somatosensory cortex/superior parietal lobule volume
Meditation and breathing predicted primary visual cortex, precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex volume
Hariprasad (2012)N = 7; healthy older adults; age range 69–81 years; 4 : 3Hatha – Yogasanass, pranayama, OM chantingIntervention1-hour 5 days a week for 3 months + 3 months of home practiceMRIIncreased GM volume in bilateral hippocampus (posterior region) following yoga intervention
Froeliger (2012b)N = 14; healthy adults – 7 yoga experts and 7 controls; 35.95 years; 2 : 12HathaCross-sectional3+ years of yoga experience with 45 + min of practice 3-4 times per week vs no yoga or meditation experienceMRIGreater GM volume of frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions among yoga experts
Fewer self-reported cognitive failures among yoga experts
Negative correlation between cognitive failures and GM volume
Positive correlation between years of yoga experience and GM volume
Froeliger (2012a)N = 14; healthy adults – 7 yoga experts and 7 controls; 35.95 years; 2 : 12HathaCross-sectional3+ years of yoga experience with 45 + min of practice 3-4 times per week vs no yoga or meditation experienceTask-based fMRILower right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (i.e. MFG) activity during viewing of negative and neutral emotional images among yoga experts
Greater left superior frontal gyrus activity during Stroop task among controls
Greater left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activity during Stroop task with presence of negative emotional distractors than neutral emotional distractors in yoga experts (opposite pattern for controls)
No correlation between amygdala activation to viewing negative emotional image and task-related changes in affect among yoga experts (decreases in positive affect were correlated with increased amygdala activation in controls).
Cohen (2009)N = 4; healthy older adults with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension; 45 years; 2 : 2Hatha – IyengarIntervention1-hour bi-weekly practice for 6 weeks + 1-hour weekly practice and home DVD (average 20 min daily practice reported) for 6 weeksInjection of Tc-bicisate + single proton emission computed tomographyDecrease in average cerebral blood flow ratio in right amygdala, right dorsal medial cortex, and right sensorimotor area during baseline scan following yoga intervention
Increased activation in right dorsal medial frontal lobe, left dorsal medial frontal lobe, right prefrontal cortex, right sensorimotor cortex, right inferior frontal lobe, and right superior frontal lobe during meditation following yoga intervention
Greater activity in the left side of anterior cingulate, dorsomedial frontal cortex, superior temporal lobe relative to the right following yoga intervention
Greater laterality preference for the left over the right hemisphere during meditation compared to baseline following yoga intervention

Various styles of yoga were reported across the studies, with a majority (n = 9) classified as Hatha yoga practice (a style that focuses on physical postures, breathing, and meditation). Other styles of yoga reported in the studies included Kundalini yoga with Kirtan Kriya (n = 2), which focuses more on mediation and the chanting of mantras, and Iyengar (n = 1) which is a type of Hatha yoga with a greater emphasis on anatomical detail and alignment. The 5 intervention studies ranged from 10 to 24 weeks and examined the brain health outcomes at baseline and end of the intervention. The frequency of yoga practice varied across the interventions ranging from once a week to biweekly to daily practice. Studies that compared brain health outcomes for yoga practitioners or experts with age- and or sex-matched controls typically included yoga practitioners with at least 3 or more years of regular (weekly or biweekly) yoga practice. None of these cross-sectional studies offered a standardized definition or specific criterion to define a yoga practitioner. Based on the studies included in this review, a yoga practitioner was defined as an individual who had consistently practiced yoga for at least 3 years on a weekly basis.

Effects of yoga practice on brain structure

In order to identify the effects of yoga practice on brain structure, researchers have utilized MRI to investigate how the structure of the brain differs among those with experience practicing yoga (see Fig. 3).


vt. 插于,刺入,竖起<
回购股票会帮助推高股价,很多分析师将标准普尔500(Standard & Poor's 500 index)创下多次历史新高归功于股票回购的盛行。
FKA twigs “Two Weeks” (Young Turks)
通常冷静的分析师们早已习惯了汽车行业的缓慢增长,但是遇到特斯拉,他们就丢掉了一贯的谨慎。德意志银行(Deutsche Bank)的分析师罗德o拉切给该股设定了310美元的目标价格。无独有偶,摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)的分析师亚当o乔纳斯也将特斯拉的目标股价定为320美元,并称它是“世界上最重要的汽车公司”。
Insead is top of the 2017 Financial Times global ranking of the best 100 MBA programmes. It is the second year that the multi-campus international business school has taken the number one spot, after claiming it for the first time last year.
Against: It's not yet managing to win top honors from critics' groups.
Germanyjust hung four onPortugal. It was a bit of a shocking result, at least from the perspective that most observers expectedPortugalto put up a bit more fight. But it was another relatively high-scoring game at World Cup 2014? Not surprising at all.
China is committed to denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, the peace and stability in the Korean Peninsula, and resolving issues through dialogue and consultation. That is China’s consistent and clear-cut position.
However, some lawmakers already are discussing a standoff again in late February over raising the federal borrowing limit. 'You can never count on policy makers to not shoot themselves in the foot,' Mr. Daco said.

Brain regions showing A) structural differences in yoga-practitioners compared to non-practitioners or B) a dose-dependent relationship between years of yoga practice and brain structure among practitioners. Yoga practitioners exhibited greater cortical thickness, gray matter (GM) volume, and GM density than non-practitioners in a variety of regions. Among yoga-practitioners, a positive relationship between the years of yoga practice and GM volume was also observed in a number of areas. All but one of the regions shown were created by making a 5 mm sphere around the coordinates provided in the studies reviewed. Since Gothe et al. (2018) did not investigate volume differences on a voxel-wise basis, a mask of the whole structure is shown.

Cross-sectional studies examining group differences

The majority of these studies have relied on comparing the brain structure of experienced yoga practitioners, with the brain structure of non-practitioners, or yoga-naïve controls, to detect cross-sectional differences existing between the groups. Afonso et al. [23] found differences in cortical thickness among female adults over the age of 60 with 8 or more years of Hatha yoga experience compared to a non-practitioner control group. The yoga-practitioners exhibited greater cortical thickness in an area of the left prefrontal cortex that included part of the middle frontal and superior frontal gyri. Importantly, participants between groups were matched for the typical amount of non-yoga physical activity they engage in, suggesting that the differences in cortical thickness are not just due to a potentially greater levels of overall physical activity among yoga-practitioners.

Other studies that investigated cross-sectional differences in brain structure between yoga-practitioners and non-practitioners primarily focused on detecting differences in gray matter (GM) volume rather than cortical thickness. Our own work [24] sought to determine whether the volume of the hippocampus, a subcortical structure that plays an important role in memory, differed between yoga-practitioners with at least 3 years of experience compared to non-practitioners. We found the volume of the left hippocampus to be significantly greater among yoga-practitioners compared to age- and sex- matched controls with similar physical activity and fitness levels. We also tested differences between the thalamus and caudate nucleus, which are subcortical structures that served as control regions. No significant differences were found between the two groups, suggesting that yoga effects on the brain may be selective and similar to those observed in the aerobic exercise-cognition literature. Consistent with this result, another study [25] also identified volume differences in the left hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus between healthy adults with and without yoga experience. A number of additional frontal (bilateral orbital frontal, right middle frontal, and left precentral gyri), temporal (left superior temporal gyrus), limbic (left parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, and insula), occipital (right lingual gyrus), and cerebellar regions were also larger among yoga-practitioners than non-practitioners. Given that this sample of yoga-practitioners reported fewer cognitive failures than their yoga-naïve counterparts, the researchers correlated the number of lapses in cognitive function that participants reported with the volume of regions where group differences were observed. A negative correlation was reported, such that higher numbers of cognitive failures were associated with smaller GM volumes in the frontal, limbic temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions stated above.

Villemure and colleagues [26] investigated whether the correlation of age with total GM volume of the whole brain differed between a group of yoga-practitioners and non-practitioners. While within the group of healthy adults without yoga experience, a negative correlation was observed between age and the total GM volume of the brain, no relationship was found between age and brain structure within the group of yoga-practitioners. However, the difference in slopes between the groups was not statistically significant. Non-practitioners did not exhibit larger or thicker brain structures compared to experienced yoga-practitioners in any of these studies.

Intervention studies examining yoga training effects

In comparison to the aforementioned cross-sectional studies, studies employing yoga interventions have investigated how the structure of the brain changes as a result of relatively short-term yoga practice. Hariprasad and colleagues [27] measured changes in the GM volume of the bilateral hippocampus and the superior occipital gyrus, which served as a control region, following a 6-month yoga intervention. Participants consisted of healthy older adults who underwent an hour of formal training 5 days a week for 3 months and then completed the same daily regimen at home for an additional 3 months with regular booster training sessions. An increase in the volume of the bilateral hippocampus from pre- to post-intervention was observed; however, the sample of this study was quite small (n = 7) and did not compare these changes to changes in hippocampal volume of a control group. Another study [28] also evaluated changes in the GM volume of the bilateral hippocampus, as well as in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, but they did so in participants with mild cognitive impairment who completed a 12-week intervention consisting of weekly 1-hour sessions of either Kundalini yoga with Kirtan Kriya or memory-enhancement training. Both groups also completed 12 minutes of daily homework that was related to their intervention. Unlike previous studies, the results of a mixed effects model showed the volume change of the bilateral hippocampus did not differ between the two groups, but that the change in volume of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was different for the two intervention groups. Within the memory enhancement group, there was a trend toward increased volume of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex following the intervention, a change that was not observed within the yoga group. It is possible that the shorter length of this intervention (12-weeks) in comparison to the 6-month intervention utilized by Hariprasad and colleagues [27] explains the differences in study results pertaining to hippocampal volume. However, since memory-enhancement training targets a single aspect of cognition and thus is likely to directly target areas involved in memory, it may not serve as an equal comparison group for yoga, whose effects are exerted in a more indirect fashion.

Garner and colleagues [29] investigated the impact of yoga training on GM density, which is related to a voxel’s signal intensity and is reflective of the amount of gray matter within each voxel. They did this by comparing changes in GM density among healthy young adults after a 10-week intervention in which participants self-selected enrollment in a Hatha yoga, sport control, or passive control group. Although the yoga and sport control groups both underwent 10 hours of weekly practice which involved similar body movements, the meditation and breathing components of holistic yoga practice were not incorporated into the workouts performed by the sport control group. Unlike participants in these groups, who had not participated in their selected activities for at least 6 months prior to the intervention, participants in the passive control group did not alter any of their daily habits. No differences were observed between the yoga and passive control groups, but compared to the sport group, GM density of the yoga group was shown to increase in five regions and decrease in three regions following intervention. The only region to show an effect specific to the yoga intervention was the right hippocampus, which showed increased GM density over time within the yoga group and decreased GM density over time within the sport control group. Interestingly, this region showed significantly lower GM density at baseline for the yoga group compared to the two control groups. Neither gender or height differences were found to explain this, and no other sociodemographic characteristics were found to differ between the groups, but based on known links between the hippocampus, stress, and blood pressure, the authors suggest that individuals who are vulnerable to stress may have been driven to select yoga due to its known relaxation benefits.

Dose-response relationships

The second general strategy employed by researchers to investigate the effects of yoga practice on brain structure is to characterize the specific nature of the relationship between yoga practice and brain structure among experienced yoga practitioners. Such analyses primarily consist of examining the “dose-dependent” relationship between years of yoga practice and brain structure (see Fig. 3). However, evaluating how each of the different components of yoga practice (i.e. postures, breathing, meditation) is related to the structure of the brain is also of interest. Two of the cross-sectional studies already mentioned (25, 26) investigated relationships of this nature. After identifying regions of the brain in which yoga-practitioners exhibited greater GM volume than non-practitioners, Froeliger and colleagues (25) looked within these regions to identify areas where years of yoga practice was correlated with GM volume. They found that the extent of yoga experience within yoga-practitioners was positively related to volume of frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions, while no regions showed a negative association between years of yoga practice and GM volume.

Villemure and colleagues [26] also sought to identify a dose-dependent relationship between GM volume, years of yoga practice and current weekly yoga practice as reported by the yoga-practitioners. Volumes of the left mid-insula, frontal operculum, orbital frontal cortex, and right middle temporal gyrus were positively correlated with years of yoga practice, while volumes of the left hippocampus, midline precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, right primary visual cortex, and right primary somatosensory cortex/superior parietal lobe were positively related to the weekly number of hours spent practicing yoga. In addition to investigating this dose-dependent relationship between yoga practice and brain structure, the researchers conducted multiple regressions to evaluate how well each aspect of yoga practice predicted GM volume in the areas found to correlate with weekly yoga practice. Commonality analysis allowed them to divide the amount of variation in GM volume that was accounted for by all the predictors into the percentage of the effect unique to each predictor and common to each combination of 2 or more predictors. A combination of the posture and meditation components of yoga practice accounted for 42% of the explained variance in hippocampal GM, 41% in precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex GM, and 45% in primary visual cortex GM. Meanwhile, 44% of the explained variance in primary somatosensory cortex/superior parietal lobe GM volume was accounted for by the meditation and breathing components of yoga practice.

Effects of yoga practice on brain function

Although the majority of studies investigating yoga’s relationship with the brain have focused on structural brain measures, a handful of studies (n = 5) have compared how brain functioning differs between those with and without yoga experience. Three of these studies were cross-sectional in nature, with two comparing task-related brain activation and the other comparing functional brain connectivity between experienced yoga-practitioners and non-practitioners.

Task-related fMRI findings

Figure 3 represents the brain regions identified across the 3 studies based on the task-related fMRI findings. In addition to investigating differences in GM volume, our own work [24] evaluated how yoga-practitioners and non-practitioners differed in brain function during subcomponents of a Sternberg working memory task. No differences between the groups were identified during the maintenance or retrieval portions of the task, but yoga-practitioners exhibited significantly less brain activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during encoding compared to yoga-naïve controls.

Froeliger and colleagues [30] used the same sample of yoga practitioners and non-practitioner controls who showed differences in GM volume [25] to investigate differences in task-related activation during an affective Stroop task. One focus of this fMRI study was to evaluate effects of yoga on emotional reactivity by considering the impact of group, the emotional valence of images viewed, and the interaction of group and valence on the BOLD response to viewing emotional images. A significant interaction was noted in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (middle frontal gyrus), and further investigation demonstrated that the percent signal change in this region was greater when viewing neutral images compared to negative images among non-practitioners. Meanwhile, among yoga-practitioners, the percent signal change in this region was lesser than that observed in non-practitioners regardless of whether the image had a negative or neutral emotional valence. Across all participants, the percent signal change in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively correlated with the percent signal change in the amygdala when viewing negative images, but not when viewing neutral images. The second aim of the study was to identify how yoga experience alters the impact of emotional distraction on the Stroop-BOLD response. To investigate this, the main effects of group, the emotional valence of the distractor image, and the interaction between these on the BOLD response during the Stroop contrast (incongruent vs congruent number grids) were considered. The non-practitioners showed less activation in the left superior frontal gyrus compared to yoga-practitioners regardless of distractor image’s emotional valence. Furthermore, the percent signal change of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was greater among yoga-practitioners if a negative distractor was presented than if a neutral distractor was presented, while the opposite pattern was observed within the group of non-practitioners. Positive affect was shown to decrease significantly from baseline to the completion of the affective Stroop task among all participants and this change was positively correlated with the response to viewing negative images in the left amygdala. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between this response and group, such that among non-practitioners a greater response to viewing negative emotional images was related to greater decreases in positive affect. Among yoga-practitioners, however, this relationship between amygdala BOLD response to negative emotional images and change in affect was not present.

Functional connectivity findings

Unlike the previous two studies, which utilized fMRI to identify brain activation occurring during engagement in a cognitive task, a recent cross-sectional study [31] utilized fMRI to identify whether yoga practice is related to functional brain connectivity. In response to interest surrounding yoga as a tool to combat aging, and the vulnerability of the default mode network (DMN) to typical and pathological aging processes, healthy older adults with at least 8 years of yoga experience were paired with age, education, and physical activity-matched yoga-naïve controls. Greater resting-state anteroposterior functional brain connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and right angular gyrus was observed among yoga practitioners compared to yoga-naïve controls. While a decrease in resting state functional connectivity is often associated with aging, this study suggests that yoga may reverse this age-related effect among older female subjects.

Other studies investigated longitudinal changes in the functional connectivity of the brain function following yoga intervention. One such study conducted by Eyre and colleagues [32] utilized fMRI to examine how the functional connectivity of the brain at rest changed following a 12-week intervention with either yoga or memory-enhancement training, as previously described in summarizing the results of Yang et al. [28]. Results showed that improvements in verbal memory recall were positively associated with changes in connectivity primarily within areas of the default mode network. Specifically, this effect was present in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, frontal medial cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, and lateral occipital cortex for both of the intervention groups. Similarly, changes in functional connectivity of the left inferior frontal gyrus, found in the language network, were also positively associated with changes in verbal memory recall for both groups. However, the relationship between changes in connectivity and memory was no longer significant in the posterior cingulate cortex or inferior frontal gyrus within the yoga intervention group after removal of an outlier. While an area within the superior parietal network near the precentral and postcentral gyri exhibited a negative relationship between changes in functional connectivity and changes in visuospatial memory, the authors interpreted this negative association to be reflective of enhanced efficiency following intervention. A 12-week intervention was used in another study [33] to investigate whether changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured with single-photon emission computed tomography were influenced by Iyengar yoga during baseline and meditation scans among four patients with mild hypertension. The right amygdala, dorsal medial cortex and sensorimotor areas showed decreases in baseline CBF following the intervention. Meanwhile, activation was greater during meditation in the right prefrontal cortex, sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal lobe, superior frontal lobe and the right and left dorsal medial frontal lobes following yoga training. Furthermore, the greater activity of the left anterior cingulate, dorsomedial frontal cortex, and superior temporal lobe, relative to the right, was more prominent after the intervention. Following yoga training, laterality preference for the left over the right during meditation compared to baseline also became more pronounced.


里奥斯工作非常努力。她很小的时候就从萨尔瓦多来到了美国。以优异成绩从高中毕业后,她一边养家,一边读完大学。成立Nation Waste Inc.公司的时候,她并没有感到害怕。22岁的时候,里奥斯刚刚从休斯敦大学(the University of Houston)毕业几个月就贷款购买了两辆卡车,毅然投身由男性主导的垃圾处理行业。目前,这家位于休斯敦的公司有24名全职员工。里奥斯说:“回头看看过去的经历,总是让我感到吃惊。我很小的时候就跟着父母来到美国,现在我正在实现我的美国梦。”
Anxiety has been fanned by the build-up of corporate debt in emerging markets, which doubled between 2008 and 2014 and has been one of the fastest growing areas of the global bond market.
Type D personalities usually have a low self-esteem and a great fear of disapproval and this is the primary reason that prevents them from opening up to others.
最佳录影带:Little Big Town《Tornado》
2. American shale.By the end of 2014, the U.S. was producing more than 9 million barrels of oil per day, an 80 percent increase from 2007. That output went a long way to creating a glut of oil, which helped send oil prices to the dumps in 2014. Having collectively shot themselves in the foot, the big question is how affected U.S. drillers will be by sub-$60 WTI. Rig counts continue to fall, spending is being slashed, but output has so far been stable. Whether the industry can maintain output given today’s prices or production begins to fall will have an enormous impact on international supplies, and as a result, prices.
It’s ironic that in a country as populous as China, a meme about loneliness would be so popular. This seemingly irrational line has been repeated in every possible permutation, on every possible occasion, e.g. “What big brother is reading not a book, but loneliness.”
单词coach 联想记忆:
That deceleration could prove a spoiler to broader growth if it continues apace, as observers have attributed sustained activity growth among manufacturers to stronger domestic demand.
在9月初发布的另一份报告中,世界气象组织(World Meteorological Organization)称,2013年大气中的二氧化碳水平,比工业革命之前的普遍水平高出42%。其他重要的温室气体含量也有所增加,与前工业化时代水平相比,甲烷增加了153%,一氧化二氮增加了21%。
单词outrage 联想记忆:

Although Chinese domestic suppliers have expanded their market share to 32.7% in 2016, the trend was reversed in 2017, as their share shrank to 26.8%, said Qu Daokui, president of China Robot Industry Alliance.
After 'Gravity' and 'American Hustle,' my picks are in alphabetical order:
Most of the cellphones sold in 2016 are smart phones installed with the Android system and 4G ready, according to the report.
HEC Paris and London Business School have tightened their grip on the top of the Financial Times rankings of pre-experience and post-experience Masters in Finance programmes respectively, having dominated the finance rankings since they were first published in 2011.
Total Program Cost: $176,600
Album of the year: "Chief," Eric Church
As consumers in developing countries continue to shift to meat-based diets, grains and oilseeds used as livestock feed are expected to see support.
Regulators clamped down on outbound deals following an unprecedented flood of offshore acquisitions in 2016 that drained China’s foreign exchange reserves. In August this year, China’s cabinet formalised a new framework that encourages deals that fit Beijing’s strategic priorities and discourages deals in entertainment, sports and luxury real estate
To tackle the problems, the report suggests that e-commerce laws should be developed as soon as possible. It also calls for the establishment of an online credit system to strengthen the discipline of the e-commerce industry.
The renewal of the 70-year term of land-use rights by urban-dwelling owners will be no problem. No application needs to be filed, there will be no preset conditions and it will not affect any deal being made over the property.
The pair stand on opposite sides backstage and memorize the winners to avoid having to write them down and have revealed in the past how they carry out rigorous checks to ensure they have stuffed the envelopes correctly. It is believed Ruiz and Cullinan are ordered to destroy the duplicate cards as the presentation goes on, so by the time Best Picture is awarded, the only envelopes left are the two for Best Picture.

Evidence suggests that global GM declines with age [34] while physical activity and cardiovascular fitness [35, 36] as well as mindfulness [21, 22] have shown to confer neuro-protective effects. The holistic practice of yoga combines physical activity in the form of postures with yoga-based meditative and breathing exercises. The findings from studies reviewed in this paper are therefore not surprising and suggest that yoga confers similar cortical neuro-protective effects. These findings could not only have a significant public health impact on cognitive aging but also call for exercise neuroscientists to design systematic trials to test the efficacy and effectiveness of yoga practice in comparison to other forms of physical activity and mindfulness practices.

A majority of the studies highlight changes in hippocampal volume following yoga practice. The hippocampus is known to be critically involved in learning and memory processes [37]. Yoga effects on the hippocampus are also aligned with findings from the aerobic exercise literature [38], as well as the mindfulness literature [39], suggesting that exercise alone and mindfulness alone, as well as a combination of the two in the form of yoga practice, have a positive effect on this critical brain structure implicated in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and chronic stress [19, 40]. Other than the hippocampus, work of Froelinger and colleagues [25] suggests that yoga practitioners have higher GM volume in a number of regions including frontal (i.e., bilateral orbital frontal, right middle frontal, and left precentral gyri) (see Fig. 3), limbic (i.e., left parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, and insula), temporal (i.e., left superior temporal gyrus), occipital (i.e., right lingual gyrus) and cerebellar regions. Experimental and lesion studies indicate these brain structures are involved with tasks of cognitive control [41], inhibition of automatized or prepotent responses [42], the contextually appropriate selection and coordination of actions [43], and reward evaluation and decision making [44, 45]. The cerebellum, a brain structure known for decades as integral to the precise coordination and timing of body movements [46], has more recently been acknowledged to be involved in cognition, specifically executive function [47, 48].

The studies reviewed also implicate the role of yoga in functioning of the dlPFC and the amygdala (see Fig. 4). Gothe et al. [24] found that yoga practitioners demonstrated decreased dlPFC activation during the encoding phase of a working memory task in comparison to the controls. Froelinger et al. [30] also found yoga practitioners to be less reactive in the right dlPFC when viewing the negatively valanced images on the affective Stroop task. Task-relevant targets activate the dlPFC, whereas emotional distractors activate the amygdala [49]. Exerting cognitive control over emotional processes leads to increased activation in the dlPFC, with corresponding reciprocal deactivation in the amygdala [50, 51]. The studies suggest that when emotional experience occurred within the context of a demanding task situation, yoga practitioners appeared to resolve emotional interference via recruitment of regions of the cortex that subserve cognitive control. Plausibly, these findings may indicate that yoga practitioners selectively recruit neurocognitive resources to disengage from negative emotional information processing and engage the cognitive demands presented by working memory and inhibitory control tasks demonstrating overall neurocognitive resource efficiency.


'If that happens, that will need to be offset by some reduction of production out of Saudi [Arabia],' said Neil Gregson, a fund manager at J.P. Morgan Asset Management who oversees $3.5 billion in natural-resources investments.
“We weren’t looking to throw the bums out, as they might say about an election. We were just really impressed with a flood of new powertrains, ” says Drew Winter, WardsAuto World Editor-in-Chief. “What was great yesterday might be less impressive tomorrow because engine technology is changing so rapidly.”
Anne-Sylvaine Chassany
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, 72, became Africa's first democratically elected female president in 2005. The Nobel Committee praised the Liberian leader for her efforts to secure peace, promote economic and social development and strengthen the position of women.

Brain regions showing differential task-related activation in yoga-practitioners. Yoga practitioners showed less activation than non-practitioners in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the encoding phase of a Sternberg Working Memory task (yellow). Yoga practitioners also showed less activation than non-practitioners in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right superior frontal gyri, but more activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during various aspects of an Affective Stroop task (red). All regions shown were created by making a 5 mm sphere around the coordinates provided in the studies reviewed.

A network of neural structures including the frontal lobe, the anterior cingulate cortex, the infero-temporal lobe and the parietal cortex are known to be involved in cognitive operations including stimulus processing and memory updating [52, 53]. Specifically, the anterior cingulate cortex is part of the brain’s limbic system and has connections with multiple brain structures that process sensory, motor, emotional and cognitive information [54]. In our reviewed studies, Eyre et al. [32] found verbal memory performance to be correlated with increased connectivity between the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, frontal medial cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, and lateral occipital cortex following a 12-week yoga intervention. Villemure et al. [26] also reported a positive correlation between the dose of weekly yoga practice and GM in the cingulate cortex. Collectively these results are promising and corroborate the aerobic exercise literature, as the anterior cingulate cortex is one of the brain structures that shows disproportional changes as a result of participation in moderate intensity physical activity [55]. Many of these regions are part of the default mode network, which is typically activated during rest and deactivated when an individual is engaged in an external task [56]. Following a yoga intervention, increases in connectivity of regions in the DMN were associated with improvements in verbal memory recall [32]. Given that functional connectivity of the DMN has been negatively associated with age-related pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease [57], as well as in the context of typical aging [58], the increases in functional connectivity in regions of the DMN reported by Eyre et al. further indicate that yoga practice is a promising intervention for use among aging populations.

Future directions

Native social media ads -- the ones that appear right in your Twitter and Facebook streams -- exploded in 2013. Love 'em or hate 'em, they're only getting bigger in 2014. This year, expect some significant, if slightly creepy, advances in location-specific targeting. Twitter, for instance, just unveiled a feature enabling paid Tweets to be targeted by zip code. You walk into a neighborhood, for instance, and suddenly Promoted Tweets for the local watering hole, dry cleaner, and McDonald's (MCD) pop up in your Twitter stream. This kind of "geo-fencing," which Facebook has had since 2011, enables businesses to court nearby customers who might actually want to get ads offering special deals, in-store specials, etc. The upside: more relevant ads and promos you can actually use. The downside: more ads.
About 980 million yuan of illicit assets were recovered, according to the Communist Party of China Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.
1977:“俄罗斯型流感”H1N1感染人类1977: "Russian flu" H1N1 Infects Humans
The leadership changes across the industry will be of particular interest to female consulting professionals, given none of these firms have ever been run by a woman. Consulting firms are vocal proponents of the business case for improved gender diversity at the top of large companies. It will be interesting to see if any of them decide to practice what they preach.
The kitchen addition, about 40 feet long, was designed to be in keeping with the original house, with intricate ceiling woodwork and several colored-glass panels by Century Studios, a Minneapolis company that secured its glass from the Chicago manufacturer used by Frank Lloyd Wright. Stainless-steel appliances include a five-foot-wide range and a Sub-Zero refrigerator. The dining area opens to a back patio through 10-foot-tall glass doors.
For example, taxi drivers who take a detour or refuse passengers can also be fined a maximum of 2,000 yuan.
2014 sees the World Cup returning to South America for the first time since 1978, when a Mario Kempes inspired Argentina saw off the Netherlands, keeping up the record that only South American teams have ever won the tournament when it's been held there. So will 2014 be any different ? Will any of the big European nations, including the holders Spain, be able to do what no other team has managed in the past ? Or does any other continent have the strength to see off the challenge from a strong South American group ?
After laying low for months, Taylor made a spectacularly bold return with this new album.

Asli Erdogan
5. Smart belt
Get ready to see ads from the neighborhood pub on Twitter
回忆:fanfare(n 夸耀)
New investment in Europe was up 28 per cent on the $18bn registered in 2014, a smaller increase than 2014’s doubling of the 2013 figure. Investment in the US was up 17 per cent compared on 2014’s level of $12.8bn.
1999:H9N2传染人类1999: H9N2 Infects Humans
For the full year, profits rose 3.3 per cent, the slowest growth since at least 2008, when Chinese manufacturers were slammed by the global financial crisis.
2. Luminous Intimacy: The Cinema of Nathaniel Dorsky and Jerome Hiler All praise and many deep-felt thanks to the New York Film Festival for programming this sublime dual retrospective.
New York City, now ranked seventh, has gone up 15 places since last year. It has seen a big jump in costs over recent years, moving up 42 spots since 2011.
This year brought so many promising new shows: 2014 was the year of “True Detective,” “The Honorable Woman,” “Fargo,” “The Affair,” “Olive Kitteridge” and “Silicon Valley," among others. But there were also older shows that either stayed the course or somehow climbed their way back from a dip or even total eclipse, notably “The Comeback,” starring Lisa Kudrow, a HBO comedy that was canceled in 2005 after one season and then resurrected in November.
The story of the strong V-shaped recovery of the Chinese economy this year was followed by reports of soaring housing prices in many cities.

While the reviewed studies examined the relationship between yoga and brain structure or function, only one [24] employed cognitive or behavioral assessments which correlate with the studied brain regions. Future studies should administer such assessments to establish if the neural changes produced by yoga practice are indeed manifested into improved cognitive performance and/or behavioral changes. Another limitation among the reviewed studies is lack of reported data on the lifestyle characteristics of yoga practitioners. A national survey [59] found that, compared to the US average, yoga practitioners are more likely to be highly physically active, non-obese, and well-educated – each of which [60–62] are known to individually contribute to positive changes in brain structure and function. The same survey also found that yoga practitioners are almost four times more likely to follow vegetarian or plant-based diets compared to the US population which could also contribute to brain health [63]. Future research should examine how the lifestyle characteristics of yoga practitioners may interact with the physical practice of yoga and contribute towards brain function and structure.

She argues, however, that the problems with lower liquidity of ETFs in Asia are a symptom of a fund distribution system that fails to incentivise ETF sales by intermediaries. “I don't think there is a quick fix, but you would see a pick-up if Asia moves to a fee-based model,” she says.
That calm can sometimes be taken for a lack of the urgency that is vital in the fast-moving tech industry. Many were disappointed that Apple Watch was not made available to buy this year. But analysts say Apple’s approach of waiting until it has perfected a product usually leads to stronger long-term performance. Samsung, whose smartphone sales have suffered this year, is on its sixth-generation smartwatch, but has still not found a real hit.
To Anita Eerland and Rolf Zwaan [THE NETHERLANDS] and Tulio Guadalupe [PERU, RUSSIA, and THE NETHERLANDS] for their study "Leaning to the Left Makes the Eiffel Tower Seem Smaller."
4. 西班牙企业学院
?The Aston Martin doesn't hurt. Not at all. Neither does dropping tons of cash at exotic casinos -- throwing money around makes men more attractive to women who are interested in flings. And, like Bond, men who gamble with women around are better at it.
The Lego Batman Movie
Ellen is talented, wonderfully spontaneous, and knows how to entertain a worldwide audience. She’s a big fan of the Oscars; we’re huge fans of hers. It’s a perfect match.
妮妮·切利(Neneh Cherry),《空白计划》(Blank Project), Smalltown Supersound
10. Taitung, Taiwan-The footbridge which connects small, uninhabited Sanxiantai Island to Taitung is celebrated for its eight looping arches. This coastal county is in Lonely Planet's list of top destinations in Asia to visit in 2016.
Western whites have a place within their nations’ new, broader national identities. But unless they accept it, the crisis of whiteness seems likely to continue.
源于:metal(n 金属),因为奖牌是金属做的
Will Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi try any more unorthodox economic experiments

The literature is too nascent, and it would be premature to dive into comparisons between different styles of yoga practice. This is evident from the studies reviewed as none of them compared the effectiveness of one style of yoga versus another. This question is intertwined with the ‘holistic’ definition of yoga practice as different styles of yoga place greater or lesser emphasis on one or more elements of physical postures, breathing, and meditation. Well-powered randomized control trials are needed not only to identify the ‘active ingredient’ that is driving the yoga effects on brain health, but also examine the synergistic neuro-protective effects of these elements. Lastly, it remains to be determined whether web-based yoga interventions will be as effective as in-person yoga interventions which were primarily utilized in the reviewed papers. There has been an exponential growth in the development of mobile health apps [64] and it remains to be determined whether web-delivered yoga interventions will be as effective as in-person often group based interventions.


This review of literature reveals promising early evidence that yoga practice can positively impact brain health. Studies suggest that yoga practice may have an effect on the functional connectivity of the DMN, the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while engaged in cognitive tasks, and the structure of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex- all regions known to show significant age-related changes [65, 66]. Therefore, behavioral interventions like yoga may hold promise to mitigate age-related and neurodegenerative declines. Systematic randomized trials of yoga and its comparison to other exercise-based interventions, as well as long term longitudinal studies on yoga practitioners are needed to identify the extent and scope of neurobiological changes. We hope this review can offer the preliminary groundwork for researchers to identify key brain networks and regions of interest as we move toward advancing the neuroscience of yoga.

Author contributions

NG, JD – conceptualization, analyses and writing. JH – structuring and writing results, figures and tables. IK – review of studies, extraction of data and preparation of Table 1. EE – revision and writing of the manuscript.


三大利好政策引领2016年发展 木门企业准备好了吗?



The official Facebook page for students admitted to join the Harvard Class of 2021 warns students that "Harvard College reserves the right to withdraw an offer of admission under various conditions including if an admitted student engages in behavior that brings into question his or her honesty, maturity, or moral character".
"The average salary level of employees grew by about 6.3 percent year on year in the first three quarters of last year, while China's annual GDP growth stood at 6.7 percent in 2016, both slowing from a year earlier," Jin added.


The gold market may be obsessed about the dollar and prospect of a rise in US interest rates. But there’s another factor looming on the horizon: a fall in gold mine supply.
中国中央和地方政府会对技术升级方面投入更多的经费。 包括现代化农业、运输、医疗等方面。这些积极的投资将会进一步提高中国生产和制造业的竞争能力。这将是一次国家行为,目的是为了推动提高产品质量和产品合格率以及以提升产品主导的全球竞争力。


Employment is the foundation of economic development. It creates wealth and it is the major source of household income.
Mr Karl added: “We would have likely had a record [year] even without El , but it pushed it way over the top.”


Aljasir B , Bryson M , Al-Shehri B . Yoga Practice for the Management of Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: A systematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med [Internet]. 2010 Dec [cited 2011 Aug 20];7(4):399–408. Comic skit “Big City Small Life”(Wang Ning, Chang Yuan and Ailun)


Innes KE , Vincent HK . The influence of yoga-based programs on risk profiles in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med [Internet]. 2007 Dec [cited 2011 Aug 11];4(4):469–86. Available from: 如果法国总统奥朗德在2012年上任后没有主动减薪30%,他的排名还能更靠前。


adj. 优雅的,精美的,俊美的
吉迪恩拉赫曼(Gideon Rachman)
Now analysts believe the opportunities for profitable growth are nearly exhausted, according to Chen Long of Gavekal Dragonomics, a research group.


Raub J a . Psychophysiologic effects of Hatha Yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: a literature review. J Altern Complement Med [Internet]. 2002 Dec;8(6):797–812. Available from: 2015家居业十大新闻事件


1=somewhat false


Kirkwood G , Rampes H , Tuffrey V , Richardson J , Pilkington K . Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the research evidence. Br J Sports Med [Internet]. 2005 Dec [cited 2011 Jul 1];39(12):884–91; discussion 891. Available from: 5. Repeats & highlights are as good as the main match, so am gonna watch them..


Best chances: Best film, and best original screenplay recognition looks certain, and Frances McDormand is currently the favorite for the best actress Oscar.
可口可乐首席运营官詹姆斯?昆西(James Quincey)表示:“我们并未真的假设今年余下时期中国的形势会好转。”他表示,今年第二季度该公司在华果汁销售额降幅达到两位数,可口可乐饮料销售额降幅为个位数。


Rio - home to the 2016 Olympics and a host city for the 2014 football World Cup - beat Greece as the most searched-for destination.


Pilkington K , Kirkwood G , Rampes H , Richardson J . Yoga for depression: the research evidence. J Affect Disord [Internet]. 2005 Dec [cited 2011 Jul 9];89(1–3):13–24. Available from: 买房先交百万认筹金 扬州一楼盘被紧急约谈




We learned about the lingering toll of this frightening epidemic.
朱迪·福斯特(Jodie Foster)过去也将洗手间作为最佳选择 –“它们和水龙头看起来交相辉映”–但她已经为因影片《沉默的羔羊》(The Accused and Silence of the Lambs)获得的两尊小金人找到了一个更好的归属:奖杯盒。


Lin K-Y , Hu Y-T , Chang K-J , Lin H-F , Tsauo J-Y . Effects of yoga on psychological health, quality of life, and physical health of patients with cancer: a meta-analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med [Internet]. 2011 Jan [cited 2011 Jul 27];2011:659876. Available from: The best time to visit is between May and January in 2017. Be a part of an amazing experience, visiting architecturally and culturally rich heritage sites in Kathmandu Valley, the country's political and cultural hub, and Royal Chitwan National Park in the south, the habitat of rare animals like the one-horned rhino and Bengal tiger.


n. 宪章,特许,(船、机、车等的)租赁


Morone NE , Greco CM . Mind-body interventions for chronic pain in older adults: a structured review. Pain Med [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2011 Oct 23];8(4):359–75. Available from: 一线城市房价上涨预期强 商住房市场成投资热点




"There was a large crowd outside, including my teachers and other parents, people looked quite agitated," Sun said of the moment he was rescued.
n. 释放,让渡,发行


United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. World Population Ageing 2013. 2013; Available from: 一项关于“双十一”(光棍节)购物狂欢的评估报告近日在北京发布,在此报告中,提供了对中国最大的年度在线购物活动的独特见解。.


Chiesa A , Calati R , Serretti A . Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings. Clin Psychol Rev [Internet]. 2011 Apr [cited 2011 Jul 29];31(3):449–64. Available from: 防水涂料进入2016年产品质量国抽计划


"For IBM, although they regularly top the list of U.S. patentees by volume of patents each year, the Top 100 Global Innovators listing evaluates not just volume, but also success, globalization and impact," said Bob Stembridge, analyst with Thomson Reuters.


“An employee baked a cake with her resignation letter written on top.”


New investment in Europe was up 28 per cent on the $18bn registered in 2014, a smaller increase than 2014’s doubling of the 2013 figure. Investment in the US was up 17 per cent compared on 2014’s level of $12.8bn.


The high-end model is an addition to Apple’s line-up, alongside more incremental updates to the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus released last year.
5. You're taking four-hour lunches and have way too many dentist appointments。


Obama's victory in the hotly contested swing state of Ohio - as projected by TV networks - put him over the top in the fight for the 270 electoral votes needed to clinch the White House and ended Romney's hopes of pulling off a string of swing-state upsets。
要让Airbnb退市,可能没那么容易。最近,昆尼皮亚克大学(Quinnipiac)开展的一项民意调查表明,56%的受访者认为,应该允许纽约人将房间租给陌生人。“我们不想把房子变成旅馆,但是与此同时,人们有时会想把自己的公寓租出去。”霍尔斯特德管理公司(Halstead Management Company)的总裁保罗·R·戈特塞根(Paul R. Gottsegen)说。该公司打理着纽约市250处住宅物业。


Hariprasad VR , Varambally S , Shivakumar V , Kalmady SV , Venkatasubramanian G , Gangadhar BN . Yoga increases the volume of the hippocampus in elderly subjects. Indian J Psychiatry [Internet]. 2013 Jul;55(Suppl 3):S394–6. Available from: 房地产去库存这半年:滞销的城市房子更难卖


Faster progress in work to improve environment, particularly air quality, is what people are desperately hoping for, and is critical to sustainable development. We must adopt well-designed policies, tackle both symptoms and root causes, and take tough steps to make the grade in responding to the people.


Will China’s reported gross domestic product growth surpass 6.5 per cent
And while many Bond girls fade into acting obscurity or fall into second-class flicks after making a 007 splash, Marlohe and her agents at ICM Partners are making sure the actress surrounds herself with top-flight talent as she uses the Bond movie as a launching pad for an international career.


Froeliger BE , Garland EL , Modlin LA , McClernon J . Neurocognitive correlates of the effects of yoga meditation practice on emotion and cognition: a pilot study. Front Integr Neurosci [Internet]. 2012;6(March 2016):48. Available from: She was also recognised for being the youngest recipient of the Ripple of Hope Award from the Robert F. Kennedy Center for her charity work.


n. 委员会,委托,委任,佣金,犯罪


The Incredible Jessica James
Today's and tomorrow's technology sits on top of multiple layers, every one of which is changing and has to inter-operate with others. This makes our gadgets, the internet of things, phones and laptops unstable. And it makes consumers irritated. How many of your apps actually work--and actually make life easier, faster or more fun? I'd expect to see consumer cynicism grow, as delight is overtaken by disappointment. This will put pressure on hardware and software developers to deliver that most boring of qualities: reliability.
Stand: Wal-Mart U.S. President and CEO Bill Simon pledged to hire veterans


Cohen DL , Wintering N , Tolles V , Townsend RR , Farrar JT , Galantino M Lou , et al. Cerebral blood flow effects of yoga training: preliminary evaluation of 4 cases. J Altern Complement Med [Internet]. 2009 Jan [cited 2011 Oct 28];15(1):9–14. Available from: 佳士得珠宝部门的国际高级鉴定师吉恩马克·鲁纳尔称:“这颗钻石完美无瑕,从内到外都绝对纯净。”




vt. 控制
Banks, asset managers and insurance companies have flocked from mainland China to acquire prime Hong Kong office buildings, prompting the territory’s government to announce it will release more land for commercial redevelopment in the oversubscribed heart of the city.


McAuley E , Kramer AF , Colcombe SJ . Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older Adults: a brief review. Brain Behav Immun [Internet]. 2004 May [cited 2011 Sep 9];18(3):214–20. Available from:


Trium is ranked first for the work experience of its alumni before the programme, second for aims achieved and third for international course experience. The programme is second for average salary ($307,003) of alumni three years after graduation, just behind the Kellogg/HKUST programme.


9. Smart wine bottle
“I am proud of my position as a boss, as a person that runs my own company,” Perry told FORBES for our Celebrity 100 cover story this past summer. “I’m an entrepreneur. … I don’t want to shy away from it. I actually want to kind of grab it by its b---s.”
Other engines cited among 2014’s best include turbodiesels in the BMW 5 Series luxury sedan and the compact Chevrolet Cruze, the horizontally opposed 2.7-liter six-cylinder in the Porsche Cayman two-seat sports coupe and the 1.8-liter turbo-four in the compact Volkswagen Jetta sedan.


In the first 10 months of the year, Chinese exports to the US were up 5.2 per cent from the same period in 2014, while exports to countries in Asean were up 3.7 per cent, according to Chinese customs figures.
Confidence and a good elevator speech can take any pitch to the next level. The first marketing any company experiences comes from its founder. Spend time learning how to share your vision without coming across as “salesy.” Don’t be afraid to ask for the sale, but remember: the client is always the focus.
The United States saw its real GDP increase at an annual rate of 3.9 per cent in the three months ended September,according to official data released last month.


GM Masai Ujiri struck twice to position Toronto for a second trip to the East finals, nabbing Ibaka from the Magic and Tucker from the Suns.


What dangers does the Fed present to EMs today? One of the biggest risks, says Mr Koepke, is that it might “get behind the curve” and delay raising rates for too long. This would result not only in a surprisingly big hike when it came, but also a higher terminal interest rate than would otherwise be the case.
During last year's LFW, there were 250 anti-fur protesters, The Guardian reported, and a show in February saw an activist storm the stage at a Mary Katrantzou show.


单词trademark 联想记忆:
In local currency terms exports managed slight growth of 0.6 per cent last month, besting expectations of 0.1 per cent contraction but still down substantially from growth of 5.9 per cent in November. Imports grew 10.8 per cent in renminbi terms, more than double the expected 4.8 per cent but down 2.2 percentage points from the month prior.




When he was offered the role of "Will" on Fresh Prince, he had 70% of his wages garnished for the first three seasons. After three years, he was able to take home his full salary. Basically, the first line of the theme song could have been written about Will Smith's real life: "This is a story all about how/My life got flip-turned upside down." Except in real life, the "guys making trouble in his neighborhood" was the IRS.
Much of the decline in Chinese imports stems from lower commodity prices, which in turn are a result of falling overall demand from China, long the world’s biggest consumer of materials such as iron ore, coal and copper.


Online registration will end on Oct. 24. The exam will be held on Nov. 27 in major Chinese cities.
Neumann, Silbermann and Sharp are three of 66 billionaires under 40 years old, a record for the Forbes list.


Many bosses hold their staff accountable, but the best show that they hold themselves accountable as well. This means adhering to the same guidelines they set for their employees and taking responsibility for both team successes and failures。


Define yourself
“We know the Netherlands and the Dutch from the Srebrenica massacre,” Mr Erdogan said, invoking the most shameful episode in modern Dutch history. “We know how rotten their character is from their massacre of 8,000 Bosnians there.”




n. 硅


Captivating, funny and possessed of a surprise-filled zig-zag structure that makes it impossible to anticipate where it's headed, this is a deeply humane film that, like the best Hollywood classics, feels both entirely of its moment and timeless.
The other sex toy apparently belonged to a Chinese imperial family.






TAXES: Approximately $41,684 a year
Similarly, Katy Perry was initially granted a visa to perform at the show in Shanghai but Chinese officials soon changed their mind. This, it has been claimed, is because the singer carried a Taiwanese flag and wore a dress covered in sunflowers during a 2015 concert in Taiwan.


v. 劳累,拉紧,过份


Facebook, up 44 per cent, has added new features including disaster alert, which lets users quickly inform family and friends that they are safe. Such innovations add to the media group’s importance as an integral medium for worldwide connection and enhance its value to advertisers, Ms Cheung says.




Outbound investment for the period totalled $86.3bn, according to the Ministry of Commerce.


2. The new one childplus policy will substantially raise the birth rate, contributing up to 2million new children to the 2014 economy, a 15 percent one-year lift that willonly further boost consumer morale and spirit.


Ross A , Friedmann E , Bevans M , Thomas S . National survey of yoga practitioners: Mental and physical health benefits. Complement Ther Med [Internet]. 2013 Aug 1 [cited 2019 Aug 13];21(4):313–23. Available from: “This is a historic moment for Puerto Rico,” said 50-year-old Jose Davila as he waved a large flag from Rossello’s pro-statehood party. “He’s the hope of our island, he’s the hope for statehood, he’s the hope for a people that have suffered.”


Kramer AF , Erickson KI , Colcombe SJ . Exercise, cognition, and the aging brain. J Appl Physiol [Internet]. 2006 Oct [cited 2011 Jul 20];101(4):1237–42. Available from: 2015年全国建材工业经济运行情况分析




'People go crazy and it gets overwhelming.'
It is an acoustic guitar-led anthem and instant lighters-up classic, pivoting into punk-pop with Eagles of Death Metal on "Let 'Em Talk".


8. Software engineer


因为参加了一档电视真人秀节目《Dance Moms》,来自宾夕法尼亚州的12岁明星玛蒂?齐格勒火爆全球,澳大利亚流行歌手希雅的多首歌曲的MV中也有她的身影(图)


It is said in the report that the three major industries that graduates expected to work for are it/internet/telecommunications/electronics industry, financial industry/ banking/investment/fund/securities/insurance, government/public service/non-profit-making institutions.


In May 1940, Germany advanced into France, trapping Allied troops on the beaches of Dunkirk. Under air and ground cover from British and French forces, troops were slowly and methodically evacuated from the beach using every serviceable naval and civilian vessel that could be found. At the end of this heroic mission, 330,000 French, British, Belgian and Dutch soldiers were safely evacuated.