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"We shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us..."
Winston Churchill (May 10, 1941)
Health care facilities encompass a wide range of types, from small and relatively simple medical clinics to large, complex, and costly, teaching and research hospitals. Large hospitals centers may include all the various subsidiary health care types that are often independent facilities. The old expression, "You never get a second chance to make a good first impression" applies to health care facilities. The facility conveys a message to patients, visitors, volunteers, vendors, and staff. The facility also communicates a torrent of clues about the organization and the medical care being provided there. The clues start at the approach to the facility, the drop-off area, the parking lots, and the street signs. Ideally, that message is one that conveys welcoming, caring, comfort, and compassion, commitment to patient well-being and safety, where stress is relieved, refuge is provided, respect is reciprocated, competence is symbolized, way-finding is facilitated, and families are accommodated. The facility also influences employee service attitudes and behaviors. Finishes, signage, and artwork must be carefully selected, well coordinated, and integrated. Security can be balanced with some features apparent to patients/visitors, while conveying a message of safety. Thoughtful design can help ensure the proper first impression is created and sustained.
Bangkok's 2014-15 fall from the top was largely put down to political instability in recent years.
Scientists may be working hard at making organs that match the body's capabilities, but why stop there?
The entire health care system is under great pressure to reduce costs, and at the same time, be more responsive to "customers". The aging are the heaviest users of health care services, and the percentage of the aging in our population is increasing significantly. At the same time, rapid technological advances, often involving very sophisticated techniques and equipment, make more diagnostic and treatment procedures available. The consequent increase in health care costs is not easily accommodated. Designers find increasing focus on limiting both construction costs and the costs of their design services, while compressing construction schedules and still meeting the highest quality standards.
As cost pressures increase, health care facilities find themselves in increasing competition for both patients and staff. Architecture is often recognized as an important tool in attracting and retaining the best doctors and nurses, the most successful HMOs and insurance plans, and the most patients. Consumer decisions are based on cost, accessibility, quality of service, and quality of medical care. An aesthetically pleasing facility is a key aspect of the perceived quality of care.
Health care is a labor-intensive industry, and much of that labor is highly skilled and highly paid. Since 60 to 75% of hospital expenses are labor costs, a design that increases operational productivity or efficiency and reduces staffing needs can have a major impact on the bottom line. (Don Blair, then at Perkins + Will, estimated that the cost of one full-time staff person is equivalent to the debt service on $1 million of borrowing per Architectural Record of May 1997.) Likewise, operations and maintenance costs over the typical 50-year life cycle of a hospital contribute up to 80% to the equation, so anything designers can do to facilitate maintenance and reduce total life-cycle cost will have tremendous returns on a relatively small up-front investment. (Source: Federal Facilities Council.)
Flexibility must be a basic feature of any new health care facility to keep it from rapid obsolescence in the face of changing needs and technologies. Health care facility needs are evolving rapidly, and the direction of that evolution is difficult to forecast with any certainty. New equipment technologies, new treatment methodologies, changes in diseases, and changes in the patient population base all impact the facilities that house them. Inpatient care is steadily being reduced while outpatient services are growing. There is increasing emphasis on special-care units and smaller satellite facilities rather than large, centralized facilities.
In the past, communicable diseases were the major health problem, and sanitation or cleanliness was the main characteristic of a healing or therapeutic environment. Cleanliness remains extremely important, but there is increasing recognition of the value of a pleasant, easily-understood, and non-threatening environment for patient recovery. For example, the Planetree Hospital philosophy of "demystifying medicine" emphasizes such a physical environment as part of its approach. Good design in the health care setting starts by recognizing the basic functional needs, but does not end there-it must also meet the emotional needs of those who use such facilities at times of uncertainty, dependency, and stress.
The Leading actress Sun Li played Zhou in the drama. Despite her age, Sun, who was born in 1982, still successfully presented a lovely and innocent teenage Zhou in the eyes of many audience members. regulations address security and privacy of "protected health information" (PHI). These regulations put emphasis on acoustic and visual privacy. While HIPAA does not regulate facilities design, its implications for healthcare facilities may affect location and layout of workstations that handle medical records and other patient information, paper and electronic, as well as patient accommodations.
"It's a goal that's right here and now and it's something that we want to experience," Curry said. "It'd be a huge accomplishment because doing something that hasn't been done in the history of the league is special. You never know if this opportunity will come back again. There are so many variables that go into winning this many in a row, especially the start of the season."
There is an increasing emphasis on security, especially in large public facilities, and the need to balance this with the desired openness to patients and visitors.
1999：H9N2传染人类1999: H9N2 Infects Humans
'Winning the Skytrax World's Best Airport Award for the fifth consecutive year is immense encouragement to our 50,000-strong airport community at Changi Airport, every one of whom is passionate about delivering the most memorable airport experience to our passengers', said Lee Seow Hiang, CEO of Changi Airport Group, in a statement.
And while many Bond girls fade into acting obscurity or fall into second-class flicks after making a 007 splash, Marlohe and her agents at ICM Partners are making sure the actress surrounds herself with top-flight talent as she uses the Bond movie as a launching pad for an international career.
Mila Kunis placed second on the list, followed by Kate Upton, pop star Rihanna and Emma Stone.
- Nursing Home, including Alzheimer's Related Dementia (ARD) units
- Outpatient Clinic, including the specialized diagnostic and treatment areas which may be stand-alone facilities
Relevant Codes and Standards
Federal Mandates and Criteria
- Every employee wants a pat on the back once in a while, and the best bosses understand the importance of recognizing and appreciating employee contributions. This doesn’t have to mean bonuses or fancy corporate awards, but regular and meaningful expressions of appreciation。
Guides & Specifications
- “税+费”双喜临门 降低社保费率红利初显 — Contains AAH newsletters, reports, and other documents related to health care design.
- American Hospital Association — Information generally focused on financial and organizational issues, but includes good data on health care statistics and other resources.
- 天津提升养老机构设施条件 居家养老做新尝试 — An advocate for continuous improvement in the health care engineering and facilities management professions. Contains a Therapeutic Environments Forum with excellent information and sponsors an annual conference on planning, design, and construction.
- 北京将严查银行个人贷款资金违规购房 — The first centralized clearinghouse for design and human behavior research on the Web.
- The Center for Health Design — An extensive site focusing on health care facility design.
- Green Guide for Health Care™ — A best practices guide for healthy and sustainable building design, construction, and operations for the healthcare industry.
- The Joint Commission — Has some facility related information, though it is largely concerned with operational issues.
- Practice Greenhealth — The nation's leading membership and networking organization for institutions in the healthcare community that have made a commitment to sustainable, eco-friendly practices.
- 融资环境回暖 资金压力沉重 房企开启新一轮密集发债 for Healthcare
- n. 平台，站台，月台，讲台，(政党的)政纲 — Includes manuals, guides, and other standards covering all aspects of health care facility design.
- Architectural Record — Monthly journal with a building types study section focusing on health care design every year or so. Online archives include many more projects than those that appear in the printed magazine.
- Building Type Basics for Healthcare Facilities, 2nd Edition by Richard L. Kobus, Ronald L. Skaggs, Michael Bobrow, Julia Thomas, Thomas M. Payette, Stephen A. Kliment. New York: John Wily & Sons, Inc., 2008.
- Design That Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors, 3rd Edition by Janet R. Carpman, Myron A. Grant. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
- 3.视频编辑：增长了19.2% by the Facility Guidelines Institute, 2014.
- Healthcare Architecture in an Era of Radical Transformations by Stephen Verderber and David Fine. Yale University Press, 2000.
- Healthcare Design — A quarterly magazine with design articles and presentations of recent projects.
- Hospitals and Health Networks — A monthly journal of the American Hospital Association. Includes occasional articles on construction.
- reform ed. Sara Marberry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995.
- Journal of Healthcare Design: Volumes I-X — Published from 1988-1997, contains presentations at the annual symposium on Health Care Design.
- Modern Healthcare — A weekly journal for health care executives with frequent articles on design and construction and an annual design awards program. Online articles from 1994.
- As the new iPhone continues to smash its own launch records, Mr Cook has unveiled products such as Apple Watch and Apple Pay that take the iPhone maker into the realms of fashion and finance, recapturing a spirit of innovation that many feared had died with Jobs. In the process, Apple’s valuation this year has grown by almost as much as Google’s entire market capitalisation.
An evaluation report on the "Double Eleven" (singles' day) shopping spree has been released in Beijing, offering insights into China's largest annual online shopping event. by the Federal Facilities Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.
- Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, 4th Edition by Joseph De Chiara and Michael J. Crosbie. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
- 对于该行业规模有多大，众说纷纭，但高盛(Goldman Sachs)的数据表明，在2012至2014年期间，该行业的贷款规模从60亿元人民币增长至830亿元。 — an interactive portal offering online access to peer-reviewed research projects and case studies in all facets of building, from predesign, design, and construction through occupancy and reuse.