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Health Care Facilities  

by Robert F. Carr
Revised by the WBDG Health Care Subcommittee



"We shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us..."
Winston Churchill (May 10, 1941)

Health care facilities encompass a wide range of types, from small and relatively simple medical clinics to large, complex, and costly, teaching and research hospitals. Large hospitals centers may include all the various subsidiary health care types that are often independent facilities. The old expression, "You never get a second chance to make a good first impression" applies to health care facilities. The facility conveys a message to patients, visitors, volunteers, vendors, and staff. The facility also communicates a torrent of clues about the organization and the medical care being provided there. The clues start at the approach to the facility, the drop-off area, the parking lots, and the street signs. Ideally, that message is one that conveys welcoming, caring, comfort, and compassion, commitment to patient well-being and safety, where stress is relieved, refuge is provided, respect is reciprocated, competence is symbolized, way-finding is facilitated, and families are accommodated. The facility also influences employee service attitudes and behaviors. Finishes, signage, and artwork must be carefully selected, well coordinated, and integrated. Security can be balanced with some features apparent to patients/visitors, while conveying a message of safety. Thoughtful design can help ensure the proper first impression is created and sustained.

VA Medical Center Dallas, TX

天津建设用地 节约集约利用水平居全国前列

Bangkok's 2014-15 fall from the top was largely put down to political instability in recent years.
会。在2018年美联储可能多次加息的情况下,新兴市场中的交易可能会波动起伏。有时可能感觉有点像2013年“削减恐慌”(taper tantrum)重演。然而,平均GDP增速将升至5%,高于去年4.7%的预测值。这主要是因为近来处境艰难的俄罗斯和巴西境况将好转。
Scientists may be working hard at making organs that match the body's capabilities, but why stop there?
Index: 97.8

The entire health care system is under great pressure to reduce costs, and at the same time, be more responsive to "customers". The aging are the heaviest users of health care services, and the percentage of the aging in our population is increasing significantly. At the same time, rapid technological advances, often involving very sophisticated techniques and equipment, make more diagnostic and treatment procedures available. The consequent increase in health care costs is not easily accommodated. Designers find increasing focus on limiting both construction costs and the costs of their design services, while compressing construction schedules and still meeting the highest quality standards.

As cost pressures increase, health care facilities find themselves in increasing competition for both patients and staff. Architecture is often recognized as an important tool in attracting and retaining the best doctors and nurses, the most successful HMOs and insurance plans, and the most patients. Consumer decisions are based on cost, accessibility, quality of service, and quality of medical care. An aesthetically pleasing facility is a key aspect of the perceived quality of care.

Health care is a labor-intensive industry, and much of that labor is highly skilled and highly paid. Since 60 to 75% of hospital expenses are labor costs, a design that increases operational productivity or efficiency and reduces staffing needs can have a major impact on the bottom line. (Don Blair, then at Perkins + Will, estimated that the cost of one full-time staff person is equivalent to the debt service on $1 million of borrowing per Architectural Record of May 1997.) Likewise, operations and maintenance costs over the typical 50-year life cycle of a hospital contribute up to 80% to the equation, so anything designers can do to facilitate maintenance and reduce total life-cycle cost will have tremendous returns on a relatively small up-front investment. (Source: Federal Facilities Council.)

Flexibility must be a basic feature of any new health care facility to keep it from rapid obsolescence in the face of changing needs and technologies. Health care facility needs are evolving rapidly, and the direction of that evolution is difficult to forecast with any certainty. New equipment technologies, new treatment methodologies, changes in diseases, and changes in the patient population base all impact the facilities that house them. Inpatient care is steadily being reduced while outpatient services are growing. There is increasing emphasis on special-care units and smaller satellite facilities rather than large, centralized facilities.

In the past, communicable diseases were the major health problem, and sanitation or cleanliness was the main characteristic of a healing or therapeutic environment. Cleanliness remains extremely important, but there is increasing recognition of the value of a pleasant, easily-understood, and non-threatening environment for patient recovery. For example, the Planetree Hospital philosophy of "demystifying medicine" emphasizes such a physical environment as part of its approach. Good design in the health care setting starts by recognizing the basic functional needs, but does not end there-it must also meet the emotional needs of those who use such facilities at times of uncertainty, dependency, and stress.

The Leading actress Sun Li played Zhou in the drama. Despite her age, Sun, who was born in 1982, still successfully presented a lovely and innocent teenage Zhou in the eyes of many audience members. regulations address security and privacy of "protected health information" (PHI). These regulations put emphasis on acoustic and visual privacy. While HIPAA does not regulate facilities design, its implications for healthcare facilities may affect location and layout of workstations that handle medical records and other patient information, paper and electronic, as well as patient accommodations.

"It's a goal that's right here and now and it's something that we want to experience," Curry said. "It'd be a huge accomplishment because doing something that hasn't been done in the history of the league is special. You never know if this opportunity will come back again. There are so many variables that go into winning this many in a row, especially the start of the season."

Sustainability must be a consideration for the design of all health care facilities. Many sustainable design features can be incorporated into health care facility design, including daylighting, energy and water conservation, nontoxic materials and finishes, and sustainable operations and maintenance. Health care facility energy and water conservation standards must meet 南京黏土砖瓦窑退出历史舞台 and Executive Order 13693 requirements. The 雷士照明子公司董事会大换血 吴长江团队淡出 provides additional requirements for energy conservation.

Emerging Issues

There is an increasing emphasis on security, especially in large public facilities, and the need to balance this with the desired openness to patients and visitors.

Here, a quick peek at Power Women 2013:
Exports declined 6.9 per cent in October from a year earlier, deteriorating from the 3.7 per cent fall the previous month as weak global demand and higher Chinese costs led to slumping shipments of the cheap Chinese goods that have flowed to the world in the last decade.
BABYLON (Sundance, Thursday) James Nesbitt, recently seen as the obsessed father of a long-vanished child in “The Missing,” shows up here in a very different role: as a calculating old-school police commissioner who hires an American public-relations expert (Brit Marling) to update the image of Scotland Yard. Danny Boyle (“Slumdog Millionaire”) created this satirical drama, which bears some resemblance to Armando Iannucci’s political comedy film “In the Loop.”
Countrywide, month-on-month prices rose in 59 out of 70 cities last month – down from 62 – were unchanged in four and fell in eleven. Cities where prices fell from the previous month included Shenzhen (down 0.3 per cent), Hangzhou (down 0.4 per cent) and Xiamen (down 0.2 per cent).
有5个项目首次登上“无工作经验要求”项目排行榜。其中,排名最高的是新加坡管理大学(Singapore Management University)李光前商学院(Lee Kong Chian School of Business)。该学院在毕业生国际流动性方面排名第二,而且是首所同时登上“无工作经验要求”和“有工作经验要求”排行榜的学院。
Call Me by Your Name


1999:H9N2传染人类1999: H9N2 Infects Humans
'Winning the Skytrax World's Best Airport Award for the fifth consecutive year is immense encouragement to our 50,000-strong airport community at Changi Airport, every one of whom is passionate about delivering the most memorable airport experience to our passengers', said Lee Seow Hiang, CEO of Changi Airport Group, in a statement.
And while many Bond girls fade into acting obscurity or fall into second-class flicks after making a 007 splash, Marlohe and her agents at ICM Partners are making sure the actress surrounds herself with top-flight talent as she uses the Bond movie as a launching pad for an international career.
现在,我们来预测一下社交媒体领域在2014年将发生哪些事情。Snapchat会火起来吗?哪些烦人的“推广消息”(Promoted Tweets)会不会持续不断地入侵你的Twitter信息流?你的老板是否将终于学会如何使用Twitter?这五大趋势有望撼动社交网络世界,以及我们在2014年使用社交媒体的方式:
Mila Kunis placed second on the list, followed by Kate Upton, pop star Rihanna and Emma Stone.

Relevant Codes and Standards

Federal Mandates and Criteria

  • Every employee wants a pat on the back once in a while, and the best bosses understand the importance of recognizing and appreciating employee contributions. This doesn’t have to mean bonuses or fancy corporate awards, but regular and meaningful expressions of appreciation。
  • UFC 4-510-01 Design: Military Medical Facilities

Additional Resources


Guides & Specifications

Building Envelope Design Guide