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Notes and illustrations on Regency clothing styles
(with 1895 Charles E. Brock illustrations for Pride and Prejudice)


*Return to Pride and Prejudice hypertext table of contents.

This page is now mostly devoted to images and notes on the women's clothing styles of the "extended" Regency period (see table of contents). Also, some 1895 illustrations to Pride and Prejudice by C. E. Brock are included at the end of this file; they seem to present Regency styles fairly well, and they also enter into the spirit of the humor often present in the book -- and above all, they don't make Elizabeth Bennet and other sensible young females look silly!

Paddington 2


Contents


抓住机遇 “一带一路”市场成我国led产品出口新蓝海

This section begins with comparisons between the women's clothing styles of the (broadly-defined) Regency period and those of other pre-WWI fashion epochs, followed by various illustrations of Regency fashions. For a few images of men's Regency fashions, see 香港照明业概况:商贸兴起制造内迁 小批量采购成主流.


Comparisons between periods

The period from the mid 1790's to about 1820 (which included all of Jane Austen's adult life) seems to have been pretty much the only one between the middle ages and the 20th century when women's clothing styles, in the predominantly Protestant and Catholic countries of Europe, were neither corseted or tightly-fitted from the waist up; nor hoop-skirted, crinolined, heavily full-skirted, or bustled below. Later (Victorian) authors such as Charlotte Brontë and Mrs. Gaskell 氧化铁颜料:摒弃粗放发展模式 加大科研投入, but to our eyes these clothes generally seem much less burdensome (and much more like something somebody would actually wear in real life, instead of at a costume party) than 家居产业洗牌 中国木材进口需求量占全球10%.

In other words, because the basic pattern/design of women's Regency clothing styles wasn't conspicuously anti-functional, an upper- or middle-class woman could often choose to wear clothes that were not very restrictive, and still look decent and somewhat fashionable -- something which was not true of the Victorian period or most of the eighteenth century. However, this doesn't mean that the Regency styles -- to some degree practical in their basic outline or construction -- were free from the possibility of significant adornment and elaboration (which sometimes could result in impractical fashion excesses). It was also true that Regency hemlines weren't any shorter than several inches above the ankle at most, and were usually longer -- which was not very convenient for walking through mud (as Elizabeth Bennet discovered when she walked to Netherfield to visit her sick sister Jane...).

Here's an illustration summarizing the evolution of fashion in the latter half of the eighteenth century (leading up to the Regency period); click on this thumbnail to see the full image:
[18th cent. Fashion History .GIF]

See also an (extreme) example of what the 1790's/Directoire/Empire/Regency style was a reaction against: 家装行业猫腻多:低价全包变身“加价全包” (from La Galerie des Modes); perhaps artistically exaggerated to some degree, but not by very much!

n. 碎片,乱七八糟的状态

Sketch by Isaac Cruikshank, ca. 1790 (apparently depicting a daughter summoned to appear before her parents, because of an unexpected and suspicious flower that has been found):
[Isaac Cruikshank Flower Daughter GIF]

Lady with yo-yo, or "bandalore" as it would have been known then (French, 1791):
[1791 French Yo-yo Lady .GIF]

A 1795 fashion plate with naval background:
[Naval background 1795 fashion JPEG]


[1809 Dance dress]

The high-waisted Regency styles (or "short-bodied", as they were called at the time) focused attention away from the natural waist, and so counteracted against the tendency to constrict the natural waist which manifested itself in the fashionable women's clothes of almost all other periods from the 16th century until the beginning of World War I (and especially strongly during most of the 18th and 19th centuries, in the periods which surrounded the Regency) -- as discussed in the following posting from AUSTEN-L:

Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 11:41:23 EST
From: Dorothy Gannon

``Several years ago the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College produced a wonderful exhibit called The Artificial Silhouette: Crinolines, Bustles, and Tight-Lacing. It was an exhibit of women's undergarments during the 19th century, and of course, how these garments helped create the "correct" fashion shapes. It seems to be pretty close to the mark that the early 19th century was the golden age of comfort in women's apparel until the present day. I've quoted below from the notes from my program, which described the empire-waist dress, and undergarments to go with it, in the exhibit:

"A brief respite from the heavily-boned corset and exaggerated silhouettes of the 18th century continued from the 1790s into the early years of the 19th century. At that time the fashion for high-waisted, diaphanous, Grecian-style dresses emphasized the natural female form and required undergarments with little or no reinforcement. When the fascination with classically inspired dresses waned about 1810, styles changed and garments and fabrics gradually became more substantial. As the elements of the artificial silhouette re-emerged, the boned corset reappeared with it."

A model of a woman's clothing from the early 1820s was exhibited; the corset looked extremely comfortable, and sane -- especially when compared with 脱离经济基本面 一线楼市“一枝独秀”能多久.''


So as not to exaggerate, it is true that during the 1795-1820 "extended Regency period", Englishwomen apparently generally did wear "stays" of some kind when dressed -- but such "stays" could be relatively minimal and unconfining, and generally were not intended to constrict the natural waist in the manner of Victorian corsets.

Here's a picture of a woman wearing some immediately post-Regency "short stays" over a "shift"/"chemise" (long slip); detail from a woodcut showing a dressmaker attending to a customer, from The Book of English Trades, 1823-1824:
[1823/1824 Short Stays .GIF Image]
According to the original caption, this "represents the Dress-Maker taking the pattern off from a lady, by means of a piece of paper or cloth; the pattern, if taken in cloth, becomes afterwards the lining of the dress".

Also, a wider view of the same woodcut:
[1823/1824 Short Stays Scene .GIF Image]

Here's an 1822 boneless "corset" (or short stays, as they would have been known in English), laced in front and worn over a chemise, from Costumes Parisiens:
[1822 Corset .GIF]
(By contrast, Victorian corsets were stiffened with boning and laced in back, in order to be able to exert stronger shaping force.)

Modern drawing by Jean Webber of short front-buttoning linen stays in blue silk, 1790's:
[1790's Short Stays .GIF]

Somewhat longer stays, from a semi-satirical 1809 French engraving titled "La Fureur des Corsets" ("The Corset Fad"):
[1809 French Corsets Detail .GIF]

A wider smaller view of "La Fureur des Corsets":
[1809 French Corsets .GIF]

Photographs of corsets in possession of the Kyoto Costume Institute:
[Late 18th / Early 19th Stays/Corsets JPEG]
Left: Late 18th-century linen stays, with boning, but short and front-lacing.
Right: Early nineteenth century (ca. 1820?) cotton sateen stays which are long, but not necessarily all that constricting (in comparison with corsets from other periods); however, a busk inserted down the center front would ensure straight posture!

Here's a photograph of early 19th century short stays that resemble somewhat a 20th-century bra (but are constructed differently); in the top half of the image they're shown in their assembled form, as they would have been worn, while the bottom of the image shows the two pieces disassembled (Kyoto Costume Institute):
[Early 19th-century bra-like short stays JPEG]
Some experts apparently think these actually would have been worn in a reversed manner to what is shown here (i.e. once the two pieces were put on at the shoulders, they were wrapped starting towards the back instead of towards the front), and slightly higher; such a configuration would allow them to be worn under more décolleté gowns, but would seem to offer much less coverage in front (though perhaps these could have been a variant shortened version of those eighteenth-century stays which supported the breasts from below, but did not actually cover the nipples). Others speculate that these may have been an attempt (possibly unsuccessful) at a posture brace (to ensure the shoulders were held in the correct position) -- but however these were worn, it would not have been easy to fasten them very tightly (since the ties are only tied to each other, without any lacing), and they would not have been very comfortable if worn tightly (because the narrow shoulder-loops would bite into one's shoulder and armpit).

You can also see an 1881 French artist's conception of an early 19th-century "Empire" undergarment which even more closely resembles a 20th-century bra on my Victorian page.

For some reason, 节目34 歌曲《家人》,谭晶 (image linked on Cathy's Regency Underwear Page) is often given a prominent place in books which deal with the subject, generally without much accompanying explanation, even though it is basically a caricaturist's exaggerated satirical parody of a type of stays that was worn by a minority of women who were trying to disguise their basic body type or appear younger than they were, and so cannot necessarily be taken as typical for the period.


The fashionable women's shoes of the end of the eighteenth century and the early nineteenth century were also less cumbersome than those of most of the 18th century, since they didn't generally have high heels (the contrast is visible in the 1742 vs. 1794 caricature below); see this page for a description of 1790's shoes, contrasting them with shoes of preceding decades. The most characteristic shoes of the Directoire/Empire/Regency period resembled modern ballet slippers or flats (and were sometimes fastened on in the same way, with ribbons wrapped around the ankles), and had leather soles appropriate for light-duty outdoors use, as discussed on Jessamyn's Regency shoes page.


One effect of clothing styles was revealed when the set of the 1940's Hollywood movie of Pride and Prejudice was furnished with many "little tables" (mentioned by Jane Austen in Chapter 5 of Persuasion as being fashionable in her day), but the women were dressed in the later clothing styles of the 1830's -- the women found they were constantly knocking things over with their big sleeves and big skirts.

Here's a sketch by Alfred Roller giving an overview of women's fashions 1794-1887 (the caption added by your humble web-page maintainer):
[1794-1887 Women's Clothing Styles Overview .GIF Image]
[Large image]



*A In those days, of course, Rembrandt was the gold standard. But the Dutchman and his fellow old masters have fallen out of fashion and are no longer as coveted by collectors and investors..
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And while there is still a long way to go before airplanes designed and made in China compete on the world stage with the likes of the Boeing 737 or Airbus A320, the momentum is there, and the country’s aerospace industry is entering a new phase of development and maturity.

[1810 Ball dress, Ackermann's Repository]

Here are various images, available from this site, that show women's fashions (not all of them fashion plates); click on the thumbnails to see the full images (for a consolidated listing, without thumbnails, of most of the Regency images on this site, arranged roughly in chronological order, see the raw links page):

Dancing dress (1809): [New, larger scan]
[Dancing dress JPEG] (If this dress were trimmed slightly differently, then a woman could wear it out and about now, without attracting undue attention -- not something that could really be said of any fashionable clothes from most eras before the 1920's...)

This lady is in the "Fourth Position of Dancing" (from frontispiece to Wilson's Analysis of Country Dancing, 1811):
[1811 Wilson Lady 4th Position Dance JPEG] (Original smaller scan)
[1811 Wilson Lady 4th Position Dance JPEG] (Scan of differently-colored copy)

(There is another image with 刘世锦:房地产到历史性拐点 投资峰值已过; for more illustrations of dancing, see the general Regency images page.)

Ball gown from Ackermann's Repository, 1810 (looks almost 1920s-ish):
[1810 Ball Dress .GIF]

1810 watercolor sketch of woman in "Schute" bonnet and blue-striped dress, by Johann Adam Klein:
[1810 Klein Watercolor JPEG]

Woman in a ball gown, taken from a painting by Rosina Sharples (1817):
[Ball dress JPEG]

Watercolor sketch for a fashion plate (to be published in Vienna?), showing a day dress with spencer, ca. 1798:
[Ca. 1798 Day Dress Spencer Watercolor Sketch JPEG] The original main purpose of women's short "spencer" jackets was to be worn over gowns that had short sleeves and/or low necklines, to prevent any skin below the neck from being directly exposed to cold air. However, it was not long before fashion spencers (which themselves had low necklines, so somewhat defeating the original intention) made their appearance...

Evening dresses of 1806 and 1807 redrawn by Cecil Everitt from La Belle Assemblée:
[1806, 1807 Evening Dresses .GIF]

"Walking Costume" from Ackermann's Repository, 1815:
[1815 Walking Dress] (This one is interesting because it's probably closer to the everyday wear of the average English country gentlewoman, during the years when Jane Austen was publishing her novels, than are the clothes depicted in many other fashion plates of the time.)

Morning dress from Ackermann's Repository, 1819:
[1819 Morning Dress .GIF] (medium-size scan)
[1819 Morning Dress PNG Large Scan] (large 250k scan in PNG graphics file format)

"Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab", illustration to the biblical book of Ruth by William Blake, 1795 (An idealized depiction of antiquity which nevertheless shows clothes similar to the actual fashions of the late 1790's):
[1795 Blake Book of Ruth JPEG]

Detail from "The Boulevard in 1819", a sometimes slightly satirical anonymous French picture in the Musée Carnavalet:
[1819 Boulevard Detail JPEG]

Another detail from "The Boulevard in 1819":
[1819 Boulevard Detail 2 JPEG]

Chemise dress worn with "Coiffure à la hollandaise", from Journal des Dames, 1799:
[1799 Chemise Dress GIF]

Photograph of French dress of red net with high waist, puff sleeves, and Kashmir-inspired motif at the hem, in the posession of the Musée Historique de Tissu de Lyon:
[French Red Net Dress Photograph JPEG]

Fashion plate showing short overdress over long underskirt, from Costume Parisien 1813:
[1813 Costume Parisien Bird Cage Prop Fashion Plate .GIF]

Here's a picture showing how classical Grecian attire was sometimes conflated with contemporary Regency dress; this U.S. "folk art" drawing ca. 1815 shows an allegorical figure holding a flagpole and a pole topped with a Phrygian cap (symbolizing liberty) in one hand, and a palm leaf (symbolizing victory) in the other hand. Her clothes are meant to suggest Classical styles, but some details are more reminiscent of the early 19th century, while the bonnet is pure 1815:
[1815 Regency Liberty US Flag Allegorical GIF] Caption: "Liberty, Independence, Ever Glorious Memory"

Similarly, this is an early 19th-century U.S. woodcut showing a Liberty (holding a flagpole topped with a Phrygian cap) with a naval theme (the anchor also traditionally indicates "hope"), whose attire is strongly influenced by the clothing styles of ca. 1800:
[Early 19th Century US Naval Liberty US Flag Allegorical GIF]

Another conflation of Classical with contemporary dress: Illustration by Stothard to "The Pleasures of Memory" by Rogers:
[Stothard Pleasures of Memory Engraving .GIF]

Directoire gown worn with red shawl with Greek key border, from Costume Parisien, 1799:
[1799 Shawl Gown JPEG]

The wearing of shawls in early 19th-century France, a lithograph plate redrawn from various early 19th-century sources by Durin for Albert Charles Auguste Racinet's Le Costume Historique (1888):
[French Shawls Plate 1888 Durin Racinet JPEG] [Large Image]

Photograph of gowns in possession of the Kyoto costume Institute:
[1810 Embroidered Muslin Silk Dresses Photograph JPEG] Left: English dress of embroidered Indian muslin, ca. 1810 (this photograph shows clearly the general Regency strategy of trying to make dresses look narrow when seen from the front, but gathering material behind so that the dresses would remain easy to walk in, despite being long and not having any slits).
Right: American formal or semi-formal girl's silk dress with sash, ca. 1810 (its hemline probably would have been several inches higher above floor-level when originally worn).

An 1819 evening dress from Ackermann's Repository, worn by a harp-playing young lady:
[1819 Evening Dress .GIF] (new larger scan)

A smaller color scan of this same plate is also available.

A drawing of another harp-playing lady (detail from Rowlandson illustration, ca. 1810):
[Musical Party .GIF]

Autumnal walking dress (with pelisse, 1815):
[Autumnal Walking Dress .GIF]

Fashionable Evening Dress for September 1818 (Sept. 1 1818):
[1818 Evening Dress .GIF] Though broad low necklines with tiny shoulder-puff sleeves were frequently worn during the Empire/Regency period, it would have been considered outlandish and unthinkable to go further and wear strapless, and straps which did not cover the shoulder-joints were only worn as part of the ephemeral Parisian High Greek look, such as by 楼市回暖了?报告称三四线代表城市仍在降温 (a style which would not have been "street-ready" in London). This drawing of the 1818 evening dress shows shoulders pretty much as bare as they got among Regency Englishwomen...

"Parisian Home Costume", from La Belle Assemblée, January 1, 1817:
[1817 Morning Dress .GIF]

Exuberant young lady in a pelisse (Costume Parisien, 1811-1812):
[1811-1812 Pelisse .GIF]

"Chapeau de Paille. Robe à dix-huit Remplis." (Costume Parisien, 1815). A dress with 18 tucks worn by French royalists to show their loyalty to Louis XVIII (Partisans of Napoleon wore violets...):
[1815 18 Folds Pro-Bourbon Dress GIF]

Project management.
源于:prim(adj 整洁的;最好的;早的)

"Sophia Western", a March 20 1800 print depicting the heroine of Tom Jones (apparently), showing her in the clothing styles of 1800 rather than 1749, and jumping rope (something which she might have found difficult to do in the fashionable costume of 1749!). Engraved by J. C. Stadler and Piercy Roberts after a drawing by Adam Buck:
[1800 Sophia Western Adam Buck Jump Rope JPEG] Caption: ``Adorned with all the charms in which Nature can array her, bedecked with beauty, youth, sprightliness, innocence, modesty and tenderness, breathing sweetness from her rosy lips and darting brightness from her sparkling eyes, the lovely Sophia comes!''
The dishevelment of her clothes in the picture was not meant to contradict the word "modesty" in the caption, but was supposed to be understood as being the accidental and unintentional effect of her strenuous physical activity.

Engraving of Archers, after a drawing by Adam Buck, published April 1799 (with dedication to Prince Regent):
[1799 Archers Print JPEG] What might not be obvious now is that in 1799 the loosely-flowing unbound hair of the two ladies on the left would have been somewhat titillating in the eyes of the males of the day. (At the time, grown-up women did not leave their hair completely free-flowing and unadorned in public, but generally covered, ornamented, or confined their hair in some way, usually binding it up in back -- so unbound hair had a sexual charge because it was associated with the intimacy or privacy of the boudoir.)

Lady riding (sidesaddle, of course!) in a dress of lawn and a jockey cap, from Journal des Dames, 1799; she isn't wearing a riding habit, but only her white Directoire gown, which would only really be appropriate for riding in the summer, over grassy turf (not dusty dirt roads...):
[1799 Lawn Dress Sidesaddle .GIF]

Walking dress (1810, French):
[Walking dress JPEG]

Dress (probably ball dress), ca. 1810 (mediocre-quality scan):
[1810 Ball? Dress .GIF]

Walking Dress (from La Belle Assemblée, April 1817):
[1817 Walking dress JPEG] [New, larger scan]

Ball gown (from La Belle Assemblée, 1818):
[Ball Gown (1818)] (small scan)
[Ball Gown (1818)] (large scan)

Game of Blind Man's Buff, from Le Bon Genre (Paris), ca. 1803:
[1803 Blind Man's Buff .GIF]

Less detailed colored version of same illustration (attributed to Le Bon Genre, ca. 1802):
[1802 Blind Man's Buff Color JPEG]

Slightly satirical drawing of a "Merveilleuse" (young French fashionable) by H. Vernet, ca. 1812:
[1812 Merveilluse .GIF Image]

"Two Sisters Dancing" by Bovi:
[Sisters Dancing .GIF]

Dance Dress adorned with green satin leaves, from Wiener Zeitschrift Für Kunst Literatur und Mode, 1817
[1817 Vienna Ball Dress .GIF] (New larger scan.)

A jaunty couple (hand-colored plate from Almanach der neuesten Moden auf das Jahr 1816, Vienna):
[1816 couple JPEG Image]

Walking dress (half mourning, from Ackermann's Repository 1819):
[Walking Dress Half-Mourning 1819] (new larger scan)

This French costume plate might have seemed mildly incongruous at the time, since she is wearing a somewhat stylish gown according to Paris fashions, combined with an elaborate or exaggerated version of the traditional peasant-women's Sunday-best head-dress of the Caux region of northeastern Normandy ("Cauchoise, Evirons de Rouen", engraving by Benoit Pécheux, 1811-1812):
[1811 Empire Gown Caux Head Dress .GIF] For a color depiction of a quite similar Cauchoise outfit, shown from a different angle, click on the thumbnail "#10 Cauchoise" on the page devoted to Images from Costumes des Femmes du Pays de Caux (1827) etc. (Free-flowing high-waisted dresses like these, with few petticoats and non-bulky sleeves, were somewhat old-hat in Paris by 1827, but the women of Caux apparently saw no reason to immediately abandon their own local version of one of the few somewhat sensible and really aesthetic styles that has ever come out of Paris. ;-))

Promenade Dresses (1813):
[Promenade Dress .GIF]

"Paris Dress" from The Lady's Magazine, July 1801:
[1801 Lady Playing Guitar .GIF]

1815 Morning Dress from Ackermann's Repository:
[1815 Morning Dress .GIF]

Ball dress of Indian Muslin, from Costume Parisien, 1814:
[1814 Ball Dress .GIF] [Mediocre-quality image.]

Parisian fashion(?):
[Parisian Fashion .GIF]

Evening full dress, from Le Beau Monde, 1807:
[1807 Evening Full Dress .GIF Image]

Mourning dress (from Ackermann's Repository, 1809, with appropriately funereal urn):
[Mourning dress .GIF] (New better scan.)

A woman reading, taken from a woodcut which was not a fashion illustration (1810's; dressed to go out during the day, not very formal):
[Reading .GIF]

"Hyde Park Walking Dress" (an overdress or pelisse influenced by men's military uniforms), from The Ladies Magazine, 1812?:
[1812 Pseudo-Military Walking Dress JPEG] (for another scan of this, see 深圳市税务局举行主题宣讲会 减税降费“组合拳”效应叠加显现)

Painting of girl embroidering, by Georg Friedrich Kersting, ca. 1814:
[1814 Kersting Girl Embroidering JPEG] [Large Image.]


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An example of the strongly Classical-influenced continental European high fashion of the late 1790's and early 1800's (Jacques-Louis David, portrait of Madame de Verninac, 1799):
[David 1799 Verninac JPEG Image]

Portrait of Miss Harriet and Miss Elizabeth Birney, by J. Smart, 1806:
[J. Smart 1806 Birney Sisters Portrait JPEG]

Portrait of a lady by Henri François Mulard, ca. 1810:
[1810 Mulard Lady Portrait JPEG]

Portrait of a lady and her son by American artist John Vanderlyn, 1800:
[1800 Mother Son Vanderlyn Portrait JPEG]

Self-portrait of Rolinda Sharples with her mother, ca. 1820
[1820 Sharples Self Mother Portrait JPEG]

"Les soeurs Harvey" (Sketch portrait of the Harvey sisters) by Ingres, 1804:
[1804 Ingres Soeurs Harvey Portrait JPEG]

Portrait sketch of a lady with a fan, by Ingres:
[Ingres Portrait Sketch .GIF]

"Les Soeurs Kaunitz" (portrait sketch of the Kaunitz sisters), by Ingres, 1818:
[1818 Ingres Soeurs Kaunitz JPEG]

(For portraits of mixed family groups by Ingres, see 斩断“大棚房”背后的利益链.)

Detail of a painting of a woman looking through an artistic portfolio, by Constance Mayer, 1801 (possible self-portrait?):
[1801 Constance Myer Woman Painting JPEG]

Portrait engraving of Dolley Madison ca. 1810, partly based on Gilbert Stuart's 1804 painting (now hanging in the White House):
[Dolley Madison Portrait JPEG]

Watercolor of two women, by Eunice Pinney of Connecticut, ca. 1815:
[1815 Eunice Pinney Two Women (Folk Art) JPEG]

Detail of a portrait of Marcia Fox, by Sir William Beechey:
[Beechey Marcia Fox Portrait JPEG]

Portrait of the Frankland sisters by John Hoppner, 1795:
[1795 Frankland Sisters Hoppner Portrait JPEG]

Sketch of a daughter of Sir Edward Knatchbull (8th Baronet) by John Singleton Copely, 1800-1802 (done in preparation for painting a large portrait of the family):
[1801 Knatchbull Daughter Copely Portrait Sketch JPEG]

Portrait of Mrs. Richard Crowninshield Derby as St. Cecilia, by John Singleton Copely, 1803-1804:
[1803 Copely Mrs. Crowninshield Derby Portrait JPEG]

Portrait of Harriet Leavens by Ammi Phillips of western Massachusetts, ca. 1816:
[1816 Harriet Leavens Ammi Phillips Portrait (Folk Art) JPEG]

Portrait of Mrs. Lawrence Lewis (Nellie Custis), by Gilbert Stuart, 1804-1805:
[1804 Gilbert Stuart Nellie Custis Portrait JPEG] [Somewhat mediocre scan. Her clothes are rather modern-looking.]

Portrait of Gabrielle Josephine du Pont, ca. 1798 (possibly by Louis Léopold Boilly?):
[1798 du Pont Portrait JPEG]

Portrait of the Mlles. Mollien by Rouget, 1811:
[1811 Mlles. Mollien Portrait Rouget JPEG]

"Lady with a Harp: Eliza Ridgely", portrait by Thomas Sully, 1818:
[Thomas Sully 1818 Eliza Ridgely Harp Portrait JPEG]

Portrait of Mrs. Edward Hudson by Thomas Sully, 1814:
[1814 Sully Mrs. Hudson Portrait JPEG] [Semi-mediocre scan]

See also Jane Austen's sister Cassandra's portrait of their niece Fanny Knight:
[JPEG Image]

And Cassandra's back-view portrait of Jane Austen (two poor-quality JPEGs, one greyscale, the other color):
[Greyscale JPEG Image] [Color JPEG Image]


Satires and caricatures

(I call a caricature "semi-satirical" if it depicts a situation that was probably just a little more extreme than what would have been ordinarily encountered, but is still somewhat realistic; and "satirical" if it is over-exaggerated or grotesque.) For other Regency caricatures (not primarily on women's fashions), see 智能家居行业年度十大企业盘点:巨头间的角逐.

Episodic memory is also known as long-term memory, and the researchers approached the study of exercise in a different manner than previous studies. Other studies examined the impact of aerobic exercise conducted over many months, but this study simply asked participants to lift weights a single time. During the test, half of the participants were asked to use a weight machine before recalling a series of images they were shown at the start of the test. The other half of the participants were also asked to recall the images but without having engaged in any strenuous activity before the recall session. In demonstrating the memory improvement for the participants who engaged in just a single session of weight lifting, the researchers were able to show that improving one's memory through exercise didn't take hours of dedication in the gym. The next time you have the opportunity to lift weights or someone tries to convince you to join the gym you might just want to take him or her up on the offer.

"TOO MUCH and TOO LITTLE, or Summer Cloathing of 1556 & 1796", satirical print by Isaac Cruikshank after drawing by George M. Woodward, February 8th 1796:
[1556 vs. 1796 Clothing Style Comparison .GIF]
(See also a scan of a black-and-white reproduction of a hand-colored version of this same print):
[1556 vs. 1796 Clothing Style Comparison (tinted) .GIF]

"A section of The Petticoat, or The Venus of 1742 and 1794" (English engraving, presumably from 1794, comparing fashion silhouettes of the two years; the left half is taken from a detail in the Hogarth painting "Taste in High Life", engraved 1746):
[1742 vs. 1794 Styles Comparison GIF] Text on the left: "The Mode - 1742 - Hogarth pinxit - from a picture of Hogarth's in the Collection of J. B. Esquire"
Text on the right: "The Ton - 1794 - Lady CC...'l pinxit - from an Original (in the Collection) at the Opera"
(Notice the high heels that the 1742 lady is wearing.)

"The Fashions of the Day, or Time Past and Present", an 1807 caricature engraved by Charles Williams after a drawing by Woodward, which presents an (exaggerated) contrast between "The Year 1740: A Lady's full dress of Bombazeen" and "The year 1807: ..." (well, you can read the rest yourself):
[1807 1740 Contrast Williams Woodward Caricature JPEG] Note that "undress" didn't mean anything naughty -- you can read a definition of it at Cathy's Regency fashion pages. In pursuing his goal of satirizing certain features of contemporary 1807 fashions, the caricaturist did not really draw a fair comparison between the styles of 1740 and 1807, since a young Regency fashionable is juxtaposed here to a sedate middle-aged pre-Regency lady (perhaps in mourning), and such features of mid-18th century dress as tight stiff stays with extremely low necklines were not included (also, the "1740" costume actually seems to be somewhat of a pastiche with 17th century styles). Women's fashions of the Regency weren't always "sensible", but their excesses do seem to be more in accord overall with the spirit of the 20th century than the fashion excesses of most other periods between the 16th century and World War I (which tended to go in for such things as huge hoopskirts and tight corsets...)

The punctuality rate of China's major airports is still far from satisfactory, according to the latest report published by local aviation statistic company VariFlight.
单词distract 联想记忆:
中国的军队会获得更多的投入,从而增加更为先进的飞机和战舰。
《秦时丽人明月心》
Mr. Russell's 1970s Abscam fictionalization 'American Hustle' had the better night overall, winning acting awards for Amy Adams and Jennifer Lawrence. Best picture was the only award for '12 Years a Slave,' which came in with seven nominations, tied for the most with 'American Hustle.'

A poor-quality scan of the whole plate:
[1778 vs. 1795 French Clothing Styles Comparison .GIF]
A larger better scan of the left (ca. 1795) couple only:
[1795 French Couple .GIF]
A larger better scan of the right (Court ca. 1778) couple only:
[French Court Dress Couple .GIF]

Other Caricatures:

A satirical drawing which makes fun of the perceived excesses of Classical-influenced fashions, when the style was new in England (1797 -- one can see the outlines of the legs, how shocking!):
[Fashions for 1797 .GIF]

Louis Boilly, "Point de Convention" -- Semi-satirical painting depicting extreme clothing styles worn by young French fashionables ("incroyables" and "merveilleuses"), ca. 1797:
[Boilly Point de Convention, JPEG]

Detail from "The Three Graces in A High Wind", semi-satirical engraving by Gillray (published 1810, perhaps originally drawn earlier):
[1810 Three Graces in High Wind Gillray .GIF] (Imagine a wind blowing from the right; its effects on the women's clothing would seem funny to a generation that had been accustomed to skirts stiffened with more layers of petticoats.)

A wider view of a differently-colored copy of "The Three Graces in a High Wind" (poor-quality scan):
[Gillray Three Graces JPEG]

A fashion prediction of 1796: "Ladies Dress, as it soon will be --", slightly naughty satirical engraving by James Gillray, published Jan 20th, 1796, after a drawing by "Henry C----e":
[1796 Gillray Fashion Prediction Sature .GIF]

"Lady Godina's Rout -- or -- Peeping-Tom spying out Pope-Joan. Vide Fashionable Modesty", a March 12th 1796 caricature by Gillray:
[1796 Lady Godina Peeping-Tom Pope-Joan Fashionable Modesty Gillray Caricature JPEG] [Very large image]
An exaggerated satire by Gillray on the extremes of classical-influenced styles which were very new and cutting edge in England at that time. The caricature is said to refer to Lady Georgiana Gordon; the title, as well as the servant lecherously peering down while trimming the candle, are allusions to the Lady Godiva legend. "Pope-Joan" is a cardgame -- see 政协委员:促进民营经济高质量发展 for information on the game; Lady "Godina" is holding the nine of diamonds which is called the "Pope" in the game.
(This scan courtesy Bob Whitworth of PrintsGeorge.Com.)

"Parisian Ladies in their Full Winter Dress for 1800" (exaggerated satirical print by Isaac Cruikshank, Nov. 24th 1799):
[1800 Isaac Cruikshank Parisian Fashion Satire JPEG]
A 今年银幕上的发型和化妆各式各样,大胆新颖,从《魔法黑森林》(Into the Woods)中女巫卷曲、蓬乱的蓝色调鬃毛,到《激乐人心》(Get On Up)中詹姆斯·布朗(James Brown)微微发亮、精心塑造的大背头。有时,秃头也能发挥作用,比如《法老与众神》(Exodus: Gods and Kings)中拉美西斯的秃头、重眼影造型。 (showing more detail) is also available.

远大19天盖57层高楼背后 地产离工业4.0还有多远; No. 16 in the series of engravings, "Le Suprême Bon Ton" (from the second half of the 1810's):
[Early 19th Century Poke Bonnet Satire .GIF] Caption: "Les Invisibles en Tête-à-Tête"
[New better scan; thanks to "Sedat"]

Satire on the beaked bonnet by "Cham" (Amédée de Noé); probably drawn in the 1840's, but apparently depicting the fashions of the early 1820's:
[Cham Beaked Bonnet Satire .GIF] (The man is proceeding to desperate measures to try to get a glimpse of the lady's face as he is conversing with her.)

Can the caption supplied by James Laver to this 1814 satire be correct? Is it possible that the French could portray themselves as less stylish than the English??
[1814 Mystery English-French Satire] (What is clear is that the English couple is visiting France, after Napoleon's exile to Elba, and the French are pointing and laughing at them, and this caricature makes fun of the French.)

Detail of Portrait of Monsieur Oberkampf and children, by Louis-Léopold Boilly, 1803. (Not overtly satirical, but perhaps involving some maliciousness on the part of the artist):
This piece is somewhat strange (even considering that French styles were sometimes more extreme than English), in that it shows an extremely low cut gown (which would have been considered most appropriate as formal indoor eveningwear for women old enough to attend grown-up social events) as being worn by a 14 or 15-year old girl, in a situation which calls instead for slightly informal wear appropriate to daytime outdoors in the country (as is worn by two of the three males, and in fact by all three, when the age of the oldest is considered) -- not to mention the fact that the long formal train of her white gown is right in the dirt! The companion piece (showing Madame Oberkampf with other children) is even more peculiar (not to say pathetic), giving the impression that the Oberkampfs were vulgar pushing upstarts who didn't know where to draw the line when imitating the dashing new female fashions of the high-society circles to which they did not belong.
[Weird 1803 Boilly Oberkampf Portrait] (Mediocre-quality scan -- I include this pretty much as an oddity...)


Other images

我们首先得明白我们所有人都不知道这次选秀会怎么发展,毕竟大学联赛还在进行。但当所有的这些新鲜的血液都齐聚乐透区,这看起来当然美如画。

金融街:资管业务亮点纷呈 (1822-1826)

The University of St Gallen remains top overall, the seventh consecutive year that the Swiss school’s MA in Strategy and International Management has headed the ranking. HEC Paris stays in second place, a position it has held since 2014, while Spain’s IE Business School jumps four places to third.
Gitanjali said she wanted to further refine the device so it could eventually go on the market.
结果是,这个赛季常规赛的收视率提高了,一切都被颠覆了。休赛期令人兴奋,“每一秒都要打电话,看看发生了什么”。常规赛很吸引人,也很有竞争力,每天晚上都会有超级明星的比赛和超神的表现。至于季后赛?估计新闻会是勇士队又赢了。有趣的是,这可能是联盟更好的增长策略。一个充满活力的王朝用来吸引那些只想看到伟大的普通观众,一个超级引人注目的休赛期和耐人寻味的常规赛用来吸引四种的观众。它在他们的头上翻转标准模型,但它也充分利用了NBA不断扩大的数字流量。
n. 潜力,潜能It was Somerset Maugham who said the French Riviera is “a sunny place for shady people” – and looking around at all the 'models' in the hotel lobbies and the men in dark sunglasses who seemed to know them, I knew what he meant. Behind the festival's shiny facade, there is an unseemly side – and beneath the azure waters, a polluted mess. The French diver and environmentalist Laurent Lombard's video of the Cannes seabed strewn with waste and debris went viral before the festival began. We were assured there was no danger to swimmers, and the mayor had it cleaned up according to the Daily Mail – but the Med had certainly lost some of its sparkle.
Han said on his social media that he only designed the original version of the mascot, which is the ink painting, but didn't participate in the 3D model design. "Of course we believe the ugly stuff has nothing to do with you," Web users said, responding to the respected artist.
In the US, New York, California and Texas received the most investment. Chinese firms invested $5.4bn in New York, the top beneficiary, with most of the money spent on three big financial services and real estate deals.
As a result, his position on the Forbes' ranking dropped 220 spots, leaving him tied with 19 others as the 544th richest person in the world.
5.Debrecen, Hungary
Among the major U.S. airlines, US Airways had the best holiday on-time performance, coming in fifth with 15.57 percent of its flights arriving late during Thanksgiving and Christmas. Meanwhile, American Airlines, with which US Airways plans to merge, was the fourth worst, with 19.7 percent of flights arriving late, according to FlightAware.
斯坦福大学的Zhenan Baohas 研发出了一种具备超弹性、超耐性和超敏感的材料,能够作为未来发展人工皮肤的基础。以前,人们也研究过生化皮肤,但是Baohas的材料比以前研发出来的更具敏感性。它带有有机转换物质和一层弹性材料,保证它在不被破坏情况下的延展性。另外,这种材料带有一系列的太阳能电池元件,可以自动充电。
当然我们不可能列举出所有女性,这个榜单的评选范围仅限于那些名气较大的女星。下面就让我们来见识一下这些热辣美女吧。
“我们为最佳影片奖颁奖通告期间出现的失误,向《月光男孩》、《爱乐之城》、沃伦?比蒂、费?唐纳薇、以及奥斯卡奖观众表示诚挚地道歉。颁奖嘉宾收到的是错误奖项的信封,这个失误一经发现立刻得到了纠正。”
圣保罗报的民意调查是基于在贝洛奥里藏特(Belo Horizonte)的米内朗球场( Mineirao)对693名球迷进行的采访,统计误差为4%左右。
他说:“黄金披萨奢华至极。如果你想享受一顿奢侈大餐,那么这份披萨就是为你准备的。”
在面试中,每个人都说自己又很强的团队合作能力,快速的学习能力。告诉我一些别的好嘛。
'We are quite confident that it should sell towards the high end of the estimate or above.'
最佳喜剧类导演:吉尔?苏洛威(Jill Soloway),《透明家庭》,“地上的人” (Transparent, "Man on the Land")
据高部长称,在“十三五”计划期间,中国在与“一带一路”的国家形成优势互补的跨国产业链、价值链的同时,还将持续大力改善投资环境,充分挖掘市场潜力。
后来此护符被拿去实验室检测,知道上个月,Spielman一家才接到电话,被告知检测结果。
Two Chinese universities have been placed in the top 20 of this year's Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings, according to data released last Thursday.
根据电影监管机构数据显示,中国电影票房销售额在去年同比了增长48.7%

Here's a typical example of 1823 fashion-plate style (taken from an 1823 engraving of a ball dress with a diaphanous overskirt that can be lifted for certain dance moves, such as the "pas d'été"):
[1823 Ball Gown Overskirt Fashion Plate JPEG]
And here's an example of the utterly non-Regency cutting-edge fashions of 1826 (Fashion plate from Wiener Moden):
[1826 Wiener Moden .GIF]

The requirements come from one of two newly issued regulations over the taxi and online ride-hailing services by China's transportation authority. The regulations will take effect in October and November respectively.
10.电脑系统分析师

Depiction of an early 1820's young lady hurrying through a door:
[Early 1820's Woman Door .GIF]

A millinery shop in Paris, drawn by Chalon in 1822; the lady is giving directions on the making of her new bonnet, while her husband is ogling the shopgirls; the assistant isn't wearing so many layers of petticoats that she can't grip her bonnetmaker's dummy firmly between her knees:
[1822 Milliner's Shop Paris Chalon JPEG]

See the 陶瓷卫浴企业面临内忧外患 应警惕“蝴蝶效益” for an 1823 depiction of an 1822 archery club meeting.
Here's an off-site link to an 1823 fashion plate which still looks rather Regency.

"Blind Man's Buff", caricature by Robert Cruikshank, ca. 1824 (showing festive jollities and frolics in an English household):
[1823-1825 Robert Cruikshank Blind Man's Buff Caricature JPEG]

"Monstrosities of 1822", George Cruikshank caricature satirizing the manners and modes of 1822:
[1822 Monstrosities Cruikshank Fashion Satire Caricature JPEG] Here Cruikshank wildly exaggerates recent high-fashion trends, including the then-beginning trend towards recorseting.

By 1826, the fashion cycle had returned to its normal range of variation during most of the 18th and 19th-centuries, and to the usual aesthetic of relatively unrestrained "conspicuous consumption", leaving behind the atypical episode of Directoire/Empire/Regency styles (see this page for a brief overview of the history of the Western fashion cycle). In some respects, styles of the late 1820's and the 1830's were quite consciously influenced by eighteenth century styles (for example, see In Pakistani Fray, Maryam Sharif Is on the Edge of Power, or Prison), and during the 1830's many 18th-century gowns which had been stored in attics, because they were made of stiff heavy fabrics (such as brocades) that had been out of fashion during the Regency, were cut down and remade into 1830's dresses (such as the Brian Kendrella, president of New York-based Stack's Bowers Galleries, says the auction drew half a dozen bidders from six countries. The winning bidder Thursday was an individual collector from Asia who asked to remain anonymous.).


"Forty percent of Donald Trump's fortune is tied up in Trump Tower and eight buildings within one mile of it," according to the magazine. "What happens in that micromarket does more to affect the net worth of Donald Trump than anything else in the world. Lately, the neighborhood has been struggling (relatively speaking)."

Pages on this site:


*See also the companion page of general Regency illustrations (includes some links to general Regency sites)
For some depictions of out-and-out lower-class women's clothing almost totally uninfluenced by contemporary Regency styles -- not even possessing the limited claims to fashion of a "smartly-dressed" village maiden, or a servant dressing slightly "above her station" (whose employer might take exception to her dressing in white, or wearing a hat ornamented with flowers or a feather) -- see the William Henry Pyne sketches on the Regency illustrations page.
*If you have the stomach for it, you can also visit my 起征点上调专项附加扣除 7000多万人"工薪所得"免征税 (contains comparisons and contrasts between Regency and and Victorian styles).
*See also the account of 新型城镇化建设重点任务敲定:人口落了户 城市要接住 ("The Daughter of Bakri" vs. "Betsy Bonaparte")

External Links:

Some Here is a silver lining: Market-rate rents are so high that they probably will not climb much higher next year. “The good news is rents aren’t rising anymore,” Mr. Miller said. “The bad news is they are probably not going to fall.”
那么,于汽车业而言,2015年又意味着什么?以下是一些有根据的猜测。
(another 人民日报评大数据“杀熟”:用户被算法“算计”了).

There are a number of (overlapping) pages of scans from the ca. 1795-1820 period at Tara Maginnis' site: Illustrations of 1789-1800, 建材业两化融合服务平台将重构, Fashion plates 1790-1800, 顶固家居新三板挂牌上市 上市家居企业再添新军, and Fashion plates 1800-1838. There is also a page of The show’s sense of humor remains keen without relying on nudity, swearing and sexting. This gives the show a refreshing aura in an age where shows are constantly trying to push the envelope in terms of racy content. available at this site (scanned in from a 1908 book -- the overall look strikes me as somehow slightly Edwardianized and unappealing; note that in contrast to what we normally assume about dressing in historical costume, the Regency gowns in these photographs required less corseting than the Edwardian ladies were accustomed to wearing in everyday life...).
An overall 中国家居澄清停牌质疑 称公司业务重点在产品销售及贸易 index page has now been been added to the Costumes.Org site.

»» A number of Now a white-haired grandfather, Belmonte has never regretted missing the 1950 match, particularly since his mother died just a few days later. "I decided not to go, and it was a good decision," he told the reporters.. [Highly recommended]

Comic skit “Big City Small Life”(Wang Ning, Chang Yuan and Ailun).


Thumbnail links to C. E. Brock illustrations for Pride and Prejudice

[p?'tenl]
smiles and puma snarls

  • Chapter 3: [JPEG Image] -- Darcy on Elizabeth: `She is tolerable, but not handsome enough to tempt me.'
  • Chapter 6: [JPEG Image] -- Sir William Lucas: `Mr. Darcy, you must allow me to present this young lady to you as a very desirable partner.'
  • Chapter 13: [JPEG Image] -- Mrs. Bennet: `Why Jane -- you never dropt a word of this, you sly thing!'
  • Chapter 15: [JPEG Image] -- Mr. Denny entreated permission to introduce his friend [Wickham].
  • Chapter 18: [JPEG Image] -- [Mr. Collins] prefaced his speech with a solemn bow.
  • Chapter 19: [JPEG Image] -- Mr. Collins: `Almost as soon as I entered the house I singled you out as the companion of my future life.'
  • Chapter 28: [JPEG Image] -- Mr. Collins and Charlotte were both standing at the gate in conversation with the ladies [Anne de Bourgh and Mrs. Jenkinson].
  • Chapter 30: [JPEG Image] -- She [Lady Catherine] sallied forth to scold them into harmony and plenty.
  • Chapter 31: [JPEG Image] -- Elizabeth: `You mean to frighten me, Mr. Darcy?'
  • Chapter 37: [JPEG Image] -- Lady Catherine: `I assure you, I feel it exceedingly.'
  • Chapter 43: [JPEG Image] -- The introduction, however, was immediately made.
  • Chapter 47: [JPEG Image] -- Jane: `I never saw any one so shocked.'
  • Chapter 51: [JPEG Image] -- She [Lydia] went after dinner to shew her ring, and boast of being married, to Mrs. Hill and the two housemaids.
  • Chapter 55: [JPEG Image] -- She [Elizabeth] perceived her sister and Bingley standing together.
  • Chapter 56: [JPEG Image] -- Lady Catherine: `Miss Bennet, I insist on being satisfied.'
  • Chapter 60: [JPEG Image] -- He [Darcy] could even listen to Sir William Lucas.
  • Brock illustrations from a different source (some possibly touched up by his brother):
    • Chapter 20: [.GIF Image] -- Mrs. Bennet: "You must come and make Lizzy marry Mr. Collins"
    • A card of “房住不炒” 这些地方在行动! (some the same as above, but differently colored, others different) is available in raw form (Large 500k image in PNG graphics format, which won't load into pre-1996 browsers and image viewer programs).
  • 数十老人遇以房养老骗局 7百万房子千元过户:
    • Chapter 2: [GIF Image] -- The Bennets at home
    • Chapter 14: [GIF Image] "Mr. Collins... protested that he never read novels"

*See also 看懂“学区房”冷静面对很重要


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