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# 11.3: Health Related Components of Physical Fitness

In many studies related to physical fitness and health, researchers have focused on exercise, as well as on the more broadly defined concept of physical activity. Physical activity is defined by the World Health Organization as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure, while exercise is a form of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and performed with the goal of improving health or fitness. So, although all exercise is physical activity, not all physical activity is exercise. Although physical activity and exercise are defined concepts, the ultimate focus of the health related components of physical fitness is to provide a framework for components that are necessary for good health. They are cardiorespiratory (CR) endurance (also called aerobic endurance), flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and body composition.

Cardiorespiratory Endurance

• Aerobic endurance: The ability of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs to work together to accomplish three goals:
1. deliver oxygen to body tissues
2. deliver nutrients
3. remove waste products.
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 Examples of Different Aerobic Physical Activities and Intensities Moderate Intensity Vigorous Intensity 尽管这些物质都十分微小，但相关科研成果的意义却是巨大的。 Water aerobics 解析：2016年智能卫浴发展的四大动向 Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening 大禹伟业董事长黄金星：液体橡胶会开启一个新时代 Swimming laps Tennis (singles) Aerobic dancing 全国商品房待售面积6.96亿平 巨量库存如何消化 Jumping rope 价值增长最快的品牌 武汉建材商会成立 囊括众多国内外建材品牌

## Frequency and Duration

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## Intensity

The Guidelines for adults focus on two levels of intensity: moderate-intensity activity and vigorous–intensity activity. To meet the Guidelines, adults can do either moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity aerobic activities, or a combination of both. It takes less time to get the same benefit from vigorous-intensity activities as from moderate-intensity activities. A general rule of thumb is that 2 minutes of moderate-intensity activity counts the same as 1 minute of vigorous-intensity activity. For example, 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity a week is roughly the same as 15 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity. A person doing moderate-intensity aerobic activity can talk, but not sing, during the activity. A person doing vigorous intensity activity cannot say more than a few words without pausing for a breath.

## Muscular Strength and Endurance

• Muscular strength: The ability of muscles to exert maximal effort.
• Muscular endurance: The ability of muscles to exert submaximal effort repetitively (contract over and over again or hold a contraction for a long time).

These kind of activities, which includes resistance training and lifting weights, causes the body's muscles to work or hold against an applied force or weight. These activities often involve relatively heavy objects, such as weights, which are lifted multiple times to train various muscle groups. Muscle-strengthening activity can also be done by using elastic bands or body weight for resistance (climbing a tree or doing push-ups, for example).

• Intensity, or how much weight or force is used relative to how much a person is able to lift;
• Frequency, or how often a person does muscle strengthening activity; and
• Repetitions, or how many times a person lifts a weight (analogous to duration for aerobic activity). Repetitions play a key role in determining if an activity is improving muscular strength or endurance. Low repetitions with more weight will focus more on muscular strength, while high repetitions with less weight will focus more on muscular endurance. The effects of muscle-strengthening activity are limited to the muscles doing the work. It's important to work all the major muscle groups of the body: the legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, and arms.

China saw its population grow last year, along with an improved male-female ratio and the level of education, according to a survey from the National Bureau of Statistics that was released on last Wednesday.
Inside Obama's Chicago campaign headquarters, staffers erupted into cheers and high fives as state after state was called for the president。
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The Harry Potter star Emma Watson hold fifth position in the list of ten most beautiful women of 2015. The English actress, model, and activist, Watson took the top spot on the AskMen “Top 99 Outstanding Women 2015″ list and at number 26 on the TIME 100 list of the world's most influential people.

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China's property companies have been escalating promotional efforts and cutting prices in a bid to maintain sales volumes.

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Guangzhou and Shenzhen, benefiting from balanced development, took first and second place respectively in the rankings. Hangzhou ranked third, owing to its technological advantages. Wuhan, which had achieved a good balance between development and costs, was in fourth place, followed by Nanjing with its quality culture and lifestyle.
A cheery New Year hold lots of happiness for you!

2016的很多电影都会有很好的票房号召力，但人们迫不及待想要观看的其实只有那么几部。

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2.You Never Have a Day When You Wake Up Excited To Go To Work
“有个人给老板发了个短信，说他要离职了。”

## Flexibility

Market watchers were forced to digest the reality of negative 2.9% GDP for the first quarter of the year. All of a sudden, everyone’s forecasts seemed too rosy—or at least too smooth—compared to the lumpy reality. This led to a raft of second-guessing on the timing of the Fed’s eventual exit from its bond-buying stimulus program. We went from confidence to WTF? in a space of a few weeks, with all the asset class rotations and market corrections that come along with a fresh bout of uncertainty.

9. 杰西卡?帕尔

The incomes of graduates from universities listed in China's 211, or 985 key university national projects are far ahead of those from ordinary universities, the survey found.
n. 活动，运动，移动，[音]乐章

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《中国日报》(China Daily)援引中国旅游研究院(China Tourism Academy)和北京市旅游发展委员会(Beijing Commission of Tourism Development)的一篇报告称，污染状况加剧以及人民币升值，使得北京去年1月至11月间的外国游客数量从2012年同期的501万人下降至420万人。此前一份基于对国内旅行社的调查的报告显示，去年前三个季度赴北京旅游的游客数量较上年同期下降约50%。
Box office sales in the world's second largest film market have posted average growth of 35 percent year on year since 2003. In 2015 alone, it grew a whopping 48.7 percent, according to the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television (SARFT).

## Body composition

To Anita Eerland and Rolf Zwaan [THE NETHERLANDS] and Tulio Guadalupe [PERU, RUSSIA, and THE NETHERLANDS] for their study “Leaning to the Left Makes the Eiffel Tower Seem Smaller."
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This makes China the leader among middle-income economies for this indicator, followed by India which has overtaken Brazil, according to the report jointly released by Cornell University, INSEAD and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
The report also shows that despite the rising pension insurance balance since 2012, the payable number of months fell to 17.7 months last year from 19.7 months in 2012.